Peter Diamandis: “Exploring Exponential Technologies” | Talks at Google

[Music] thank you jack a force of nature here so a pleasure to be here I want to actually tee up a bunch of quick conversations that we can carry to our fireside chat and conversation with you so first of all I'm clear that were alive during the most extraordinary time ever in human history all right there's never been a better time to be alive other than perhaps tomorrow we're at a time where each of us have more power than nation-states had at heads of industries had just decades or century ago we forget how amazing the world is right we forget that a hundred years ago in 2019 and 1918 in that one year alone 50 million people died from the Spanish flu right 20 odd million people died from World War one scale that to today's population you'd be talking about a quarter billion people that would have passed away this year so we forget despite all of the negative news on what I call the crisis news network and so forth we're still living in the amazing time it's also true that I think none of us really understand how fast the world is changing we're living in a world where technologies across the board are growing exponentially you know computation sensors networks AI robotics 3d printing synthetic biology AR Viera blockchain all those technologies are themselves accelerating but it's the combination of two three or four those together that are accelerating things add to that the notion that in the next six years we're going from 3.8 billion people connected on planet Earth last year at the end of 2017 to eight billion people connected right we're adding four billion new minds into the global conversation have never been there before and that's a massive empowerment for acceleration add to that the fact that we've got more capital available flowing than ever before we hit all-time highs in venture fund seed funding crowdfunding icos sovereign and and so more capital flowing at the same time that all the technology that we're using to make stuff happen is de monetizing faster than ever before right the human genome was sequenced for a hundred million dollars in 2001 today it's circa 500 bucks Illumina is projecting $100 in one hour as is the Beijing genome Institute so there's more money everything we need to do is cheaper right look at Google Cloud computational capabilities and so more people more money cheaper stuff more experimentation and what it means is we're entering a period of a hyper acceleration right as I think about how fast the world is going it's not slowing down and in fact you know it's an acceleration of the acceleration that we're hitting so that makes for an amazing amazing future and one of the things that I focus on a lot is the notion that there is no problem we cannot solve all right and I'm clear that the right combination of technology talent and treasure can take on any problem and and my message to a lot of people around the world is you're now empowered if you are sick and tired about a problem or you're inspired to solve something you can it's a matter of do you do you give yourself permission to be that audacious and go do it 100 years ago the only people could actually solve a problem at any scale were the nation-states right or were the robber barons the industrialists and even all they could do was unleash monetary policies or troops or so forth today I just want you to feel and understand how empowered you are to find a problem and solve a problem that's what gives me hope that entrepreneurs by definition are individuals who find problems and solve problems and there are more and more entrepreneurs with more and more data with more computational power with more and more access to capital solving more and more problems so I would give you that perspective for a moment another area I'm excited about I serve as founder and executive chairman of the XPrize Foundation Jack is for a while now since the earliest days one of my trustees and so we we focus on what are the world's biggest problems they're not being solved and how do we set a very clear objective and say I don't care you know who you are where you went to school what you've ever done if you solve this problem it hit these metrics you win and so the very first XPrize was from my you know nine-year-old childhood passion of spaceflight I gave up on massive being the way I was we go to space I did the math and your chance are right mark one in a thousand of being a NASA astronaut I had a better chance of becoming an NBA all-star at five five than I did a NASA astronaut and so when I read that Lindbergh in 1927 crossed the Atlantic to win a $25,000 prize and looked at the numbers nine teams spent four hundred thousand trying to win this $25,000 prize and Raymond Orteig spent nothing on the losers only paid the winner and Lindbergh was the most unlikely guide to do it so I said okay I'm gonna create a prize for spaceflight he's gonna be a ten million dollar prize ten million was enough money to inspire the entrepreneurs but not the Airbus the Boeing the Lockheed I don't want the large players just buying the prize I wanted true innovation that ten million dollar prize inspired twenty six teams around the world who spent a hundred million dollars they're all optimists and Burt Rutan backed by Paul Allen who we just lost funded that prize development and won it was spaceship won Richard Branson came in and bought the rights to create Virgin Galactic richard has publicly announced he expects a flight to space approximately this month so fingers crossed we'll see something is what three weeks left in the month or there abouts and then we on the heels of that created an amazing board very proud that we've had as board members and benefactors Larry and Sergey and Eric and Ann Ann and a multitude of Googlers in the earliest days and folks like Elon Musk and Jim Cameron and Ratan Tata and so we've launched a bunch of prize let me give you a few that are active right now just for fun Elon funded a global learning XPrize and we asked teams can you build a piece of Android software that could take a child in the middle of no place from illiteracy to reading writing and numeracy in under 18 months and so sundar very kindly gave us 5,000 Android tablets with the World Food Program we went into Tanzania where we are right now we interviewed hundreds of villages and we found 2,500 kids who knew no swahili no English and put the tablets in their hands we had 800 teams enter the competition 141 ish delivered software we narrowed it to five finalists those five finalists are in 500 tablets each in the villages right now we're measuring the impact on the child the family and the village and then we're gonna open source the winning software the goal would be that this becomes part of you know Android kernel for example in the notion that every time an Android device is built it's a teacher right we're building a billion teachers a year we have to go in those villages and set up our there so that's one XPrize we're doing one that we just awarded is called the water abundance XPrize now half the disease burden on planet Earth is due to unclean drinking water and so we asked the the team could you pull water out of the atmosphere there quadrillions of liters of water in the atmosphere when it you know when it condenses on particles we call it rain and could you pull the app water out of the atmosphere 2,000 liters for under two cents per liter from all renewable energy and we just awarded the winner of that competition about a month ago I just came back from Greece and we have a an X Prize going on right now on on mapping the ocean floor we've mapped less than 5% ocean floor the physics of salt water makes it very difficult and so we said to win this prize at 7 million dollars put up by shell and by NOAA you've got to build an autonomous vehicle that can launch from land go out some some distance tens of kilometers into the ocean then go down 4000 meters and map 250 square kilometers in 24 hours on its own return and provide the data right so fully autonomous large-scale mapping we're down to five finalists that are in in Greece right now off the coast of the mainland and I've met two of the five teams one team is a group of 13 academics and grad students from Germany other team is two people at a switzerland and the team is out of japan and it's amazing what they're doing it's transforming what's possible in ocean one of my favorite exercise is going on right now is called the avatar XPrize and we've asked teams to build a robotic avatar so a robot so imagine I'm not here I'm back in Santa Monica where I live and at home I've got on pair of VR goggles and a haptic suit and as I'm moving around the robots moving on as I'm looking at here the robots looking at you so it's basically a remote avatar telepresence to allow you to go and and solve a problem do a medical diagnostic go into a disaster zone and so for us we have over 400 teams entering that competition so a lot of XPrize is going on we can dive into more when when Jack and I talk or you have your questions another area I'm passionate about is human longevity I'm clear we're gonna be able to add 10 20 potentially 30 healthy years and everyone's life right Google's got a massive investment in Kaliko besides Calico there's a multitude of different companies going on right now company down in San Diego Sam you med that's using that's manipulating wind pathways which is a communication pathway that's a thirteen billion dollar private company because the results are extraordinary they're in Phase two clinical trials on a multitude of different anti-cancer hair-growth anti-wrinkles osteogenesis I mean it's incredible what they're doing you see companies like unity Biosciences which are working on synthetic medicines to kill senile cells cells that have to the hayflick limit and have stopped replicating and then are becoming inflammatory agents if you can kill those cells and make room for new cells to generate from endogenous stem cells the organism regenerates and you get an extended lifespan another I have two companies in the longevity business one is in the stem cell business called cellularity we have the world's largest bank of placentas turns out you can think of the placenta as the 3d printer that manufactures the baby and that placenta is the richest source of stem cells and so those stem cells delivered back to an aging organism can extend life 30 plus percent as we age our stem cells in our bodies and all the compartments fall off very rapidly over time and so one of the reasons for aging is we lose the ability to regenerate ourselves to repair ourselves or the stem cells in our body they will drop hundred to a thousand X in population but they undergo epigenetic changes mutations and so forth and they're not capable as they were before so stem cell replenishment is another area one fun one that that I co-founded called human longevity we're down in San Diego will be opening around the country and what human longevity does is you come in for three hours we sequence your genome while 3.2 billion letters we do a 30x sequencing on you we sequence your microbiome we look at the your metabolomic aliy the top hundred plus proteins in your and chemicals in your micro small molecules in your bloodstream we do a full body MRI head-to-toe a brain MRI brain vasculature coronary CT lung CT and then we feed about 150 gigabytes of data into our system to determine two things number one is there anything going on inside your body right now that you should know about and number two based upon your genetics what are you likely to die from and how do you find it before so numbers are pretty telling the price point initially for for hli that what's called the health nucleus facility was 25,000 bucks so it's not cheap all these people who came were very well-to-do patients so to speak the price has dropped down to five thousand and three thousand for subsequent visits but still then in two percent right so we're in a room of roughly a hundred two of you have a brain or a or deque aneurysm you don't know about which is kind of shocking two percent and this is for population two older than you are here for 50 and older have a have a high grade cancer tumor 3.4 percent have a significant cardiac condition atrial fibrillation or bundle branch block or so it like II and we find 14 percent of the people who've come through have significant findings they take action on immediately so the faculty matter is we're all optimists we think everything's fine in our body and then until you go to the hospital at which point you're like oh you know I didn't know that and but I'm a pilot I fly a couple of planes before I take off make sure everything's in the green but for most of us we don't know that eventually we'll all have wearables we were talking about I have my aura ring here right with about about 14 15 different sensors that measure my pulse wave form my temperature my acceleration and give me sleep data I've got my you know Apple watch I've got a small little fr ID chip implanted over here got my business card on it completely useless but eventually it'll be something as well but we'll all have this data uploaded to give us minute by minute how we doing and the goal people say I want to know if anything's wrong with me of course you want to know and you want to solve it right then at the very beginning when it's most solvable right so it's going from sick here which is what it is right now we take care of you after you're sick to healthcare do you find anything at stage 0 so I'll close single our University ray and I ten years ago what month are we in ten years ago two months ago we announced X but now in single our University I was reading Ray's book The Singularity is near and I said there's no place in the world you can go not Harvard MIT not Stanford not super or whatever it might be that you can go and actually get an overview of all the exponential technologies and understand what they're able to do in convergence so we created a graduate program it's now called the global startup program our goal is a thousand startups a year and then we started executive programs for six day programs where executives come in and we give them an overview of what's going on in all the technologies and how they're converging and it's really about you know awareness and education but it's it's we're growing you know a good clip of 30 to 50 percent year-on-year so I'll pause there and bring in maestro [Applause] great opening talk thank you Bob let's start with connectivity 1969 ARPANET it's taken 50 years since then to get three billion just about 40% of the world connected four billion people not yet connected to the Internet to everything that in this room we work on we build on we engage in and other companies up and down Silicon Valley and around the world talk to us about a world the numbers indicate not from us but from third party sources that well it took 50 years to get to three billion we might get the next three billion that is the doubling of the number of people Internet in about within six maybe seven years yeah very very soon paint us a picture of that world the world where suddenly you know huge swathes of countries and others that are not online today suddenly become part of not just the information flow but also the global economy buying selling putting stuff into markets talk to us about that kind of world a great question so first of all the layers of connectivity that are coming online right 5g is probably one of the the biggest incredible explosions coming online we'll see test deployments in 2019 and really full deployments in 2020 and onward and you know 10 gigabit connection speeds means you're downloading a movie in a fraction of a second you take your new LG TV set and put it on the wall you plug in the power and it's got you know 500 channels Sutton so 5g is gonna is gonna spread like kudzu on the planet but on top of that obviously loon has now been spun out as its own company you've got 1.2 billion dollars of money from masses on that soft Bank backing one web then you've got you know Elon who is gotten F a F CC permission for 11,000 satellites you know a set that a 4,000 satellite layer in a 7,000 satellite layer called called space link right Starling which is incredible and then you've got terabit Boeing satellites in a mio orbit so we're basically covering the entire planet with bandwidth and then on top of that we're gonna all have all of these micro cells on non-licensed bands I think eventually we're all going to be dribbling bits all the time and our AI is going to be negotiating prices on different mechanisms so that sounds like a great future dribbling bits dribble dribble bits we're all gonna be dribbling bits you know I think we're all gonna have our own personal version of Jarvis eventually right Google now and an echo and Missouri are all all versions of that which are which you get permission to have access to everything your email your conversations your your microbiome your your bloodstream and and it's transacting constantly but so eight billion people potentially connected in the next six years as the price comes down now the question is can they afford these devices and so can the poorest people in the world before those devices so I've seen years ago engineering drawings for a $20 cellphone or $20 tablet there is a price point at which the price the device gets so cheap that Google is going to give them away right and Amazon is gonna give them away to get the traffic to get the data to get the transactions so I think we are heading very quickly towards a world of eight billion people that are digitally connected and if you do the math right I mean and I I'm screaming this from the rooftops and no one's talking about this which drives me nuts because four billion you people connected and if they're just transacting you know on the average ten dollars a day that's tens of trillions of dollars flowing it's a global economy that no one's talking about and and the markets all of these four billion new digital you know digital newbies are all going to want insurance and banking and education and health care you're also going to be creating content right they're gonna be critical are now there's a certain number of dominant players creating a lot of the content and also of course is distributing content and crowdsource content but four billion people are not yet part of that conversation and and what's gonna happen is they'll generate content they'll generate revenue but they're also going to demand these services at de minimis you know freemium prices and it and I talked to insurance companies and banks I say listen this is coming to see but that's not my marketplace so it's fine it's not your marketplace today but some entrepreneur within 50 kilometres of ground zero here is working on delivering value to those individuals when the new business model and then when it starts working they'll bring it back to New York and Chicago and eat your lunch there great let's switch gears because we have a limited time let's go open with genomics the first genome sequence Craig Venters you know was about three billion went down to a hundred million hit a thousand now about five hundred and as you mentioned probably we're on the way to a hundred dollars or even less and of course the analysis with that is as important as a sequence to itself and that's starting to ramp up the bioinformatics around it the estimates are that right now in total putting aside smaller genomic tests but in terms of whole genome sequencing there may be are a few hundred thousand mats of a million people who maybe have had a head of seven plus billion people when do we get to a critical mass that helps us understand the significance of billions of those base pairs that we don't understand yet the sequence significance of in other words we have a lot of good sense about the usual five hundred that are cancer drivers that are oncogenes we don't have a good sense of literally billions plus of some of those you know base pairs in sequence tell us about the critical mass we need to start to understand the sample size that we need to really drop it so so we're getting amazing results with tens of thousands right now at HLI I can't I can't state the stuff until it's published but you know traditionally we talk about the exome the part of the genome that codes for proteins and yes too has been euphemistically called junk DNA but it's not junk DNA none of its junk DNA it's all in some way structural or coding or control segments and it's interesting that as you look at enough large enough population you start to say listen these segments of DNA are protected any mutation here is lethal to the person right so we start to discover by elimination and by subtraction fascinating parts of the genome that are worth looking at and the other thing I might just say is it's the correlation what was really exciting is the correlation between genome and then rich phenotypic data right well we've got your genome and then we have full body MRI and coronary and heart CT and metabolome and so forth then you start to really correlate AHA that's what this does right now I was gonna get to methylation right now genome sequence coming down but the ability to get to epigenetics in terms of methyl groups things like that talk to us about all the other rich information that's necessary to draw those conclusions so I think one of the things that is true is this next decade is going to be just discovery after discovery and I think AI is gonna play the most is is the only way we're gonna make sense of all of it the amount of data that's coming out and I remember when I was in medical school what got me on this path of one of my massively transformative purposes is making a hundred years old into 60 how do we have add a hundred to cognition the aesthetics and mobility that we had at sixty I remember watching a TV show on long live sea life that some whales could live hundreds of years sharks could live four or five hundred years Turtles two six seven hundred years I was like if they can why can't we write it's either a software problem or a hardware problem but we need to swim more yeah we have to be in a water park cool our body temperatures down but but I really think we're going to start to unravel that and understand it and let's jump to another area of health care which is our brains and you mentioned that we're going to live longer and it's already happening in a number of countries but that also now is revealing greater populations with Alzheimer's Parkinson's neurological diseases we have we've had a good handle so far on cardiac diseases morbidity from chronic has actually come down diabetes is on the rise but there's some you know hopes there but talks about the neurological diseases yeah so we have cardiac conditions in our 50s and 60s we have cancers in our 60s and 70s and we had neurological disease in our 70s and 80s and the fact the matter is just for contact that's a bright future I like that until you prevent it right life is short until you extend it and and so forth but the human body was never intended to live past age 30 I mean just to put it on the table here right you would go into puberty at age 13 you'd have a baby and then by the time you were 26 your baby was having a baby and back then 100 thousand years ago before whole foods and McDonald's was around right when food was scarce the last thing you wanted to do for The Selfish Gene was to take the money out of here at grandchildren's mouths and now compete with them so you do the best thing you could give your bits back to the environment but of course that's changed now and we're beginning to extend life and as we extend life we run into new problems there is amazing drugs in Phase two clinical trials right now we're seeing impact from sin oolitic medicines we're seeing impacts from wind pathway manipulations on cancers and and Alzheimer's I think one of the areas that is super exciting as well it's a whole field of brain-computer interface right my last count there's probably a billion dollars a year going into interfacing your neocortex with the cloud in buildings not far from here and so at the end of the day we're gonna learn a lot about how the brain works and the root causes of these diseases as we have over and over again but a lot of its gonna come because our ability to sense and gather data and analyze the data is you know billions trillions of times you know better than ever let's turn to one of your first passion space let's talk about really space travel that's we hear from Branson that it may be imminent Virgin Galactic may be launching imminently with paying customers and there's been a long line of thousands of people putting their bets in terms of their down payments on getting a seat on that ride which is it's great to see that any Virgin Galactic ticket holders here in the audience so to curiosity ok well that's the customers potential exactly I'll take a check later but but talk to us about what you see as the odds that we're gonna be a multi-planet species within say 10 years 20 years 50 years sure we obviously have the potential the technology I don't think that there's doubt that we can actually get to another planet now but tell us about the will and the mobilization to make that out yeah so probably the the single most important driver that's making that happen is the individual passionate actor in this case in the form of Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson and just past Paul Allen and it's interesting right a lot of these individuals grew up in the case of Jeff Webb known for 35 years since the early days of CEG's I was founder seds and said and Jeff ran that Princeton chapter a member meeting Jeff after he started Amazon so what he doing with this Amazon thing and he goes well I'm gonna make a lot of money there and spend it on space no really and and Neil ons committed said I will spend all his money on opening up space that is his both of them are that committed and I think a lot of it was those who were born during the Apollo and shuttle era got enamored with this vision right from Star Wars and Star and all of those things and then NASA never implemented it never never paid off on the deal and so now you've got individuals saying we'll do it I've known Elon since he sold PayPal and watched what he did with with with SpaceX with the Falcon one and one Ian Falcon nine and heavy and I would never bet against him he is dead set on making that happen and I think he will you know he set a target at landing in 2024 on the Martian surface okay listen I'll give him an extra four years but could he get there by 2028 I would bet on him over any government hands down and then Jeff is sort of the the tert the tortoise in the race right he's committed a billion dollars a year and he's just that is his and his endgame and so I think we're gonna do it I think it's gonna be a function of you know I don't think governments can take the risks anymore that were inherent in the early Apollo program days its way to failure is not an option for them and therefore risk is no option either but individuals can say I'm going to do this I mean you know there is a Tesla on a earth asteroid return that's insane I mean just like like game over point yeah you mentioned a number of great entrepreneurs and we can see how they're changing the world so let's talk about entrepreneurship now yeah here in Silicon Valley we know the power of entrepreneurship we see it we feel it there's other key entrepreneurial centers around the world but it's not spread evenly enough yet it's not as inclusive as it needs to be and could be and not only is that the case we're missing out on the talents of many of those people from diverse backgrounds that could be part of the entrepreneurial during lift and is earning what are your thoughts around how to change that game so first of all we're dematerializing democratizing and d monetizing all the tools for entrepreneurship right so it used to be that to be an entrepreneur you needed to have computational power you need to have an Ethernet cable or a modem plug or whatever and you need to have you know now obviously with Google Cloud and AWS you have all the computational power you want by the number is by 2023 I believe there'll be 300 billion dollars available in crowdfunding which means anyone around the world with a good idea can launch a crowdfunding campaign to get the capital so capital becomes less of a restriction obviously Google makes the world's information available so what used to be scarce resources I mean bad with I remember back in 2001 I had a stealth company called blast off my number one expense was Akamai on bandwidth to send video to people was like ridiculous and now it's nothing so we're literally everything you need to be to to create an entrepreneurial startup is becoming available globally at lower lower costs and so it's now the number one scarce resource that I see an entrepreneurship around the world is mindset so I was just in Greece at an su Athens summit meeting there with heads of the country and the entrepreneurs and they were saying what do we need to do to become more innovative it's a country of 10 million people it's like one Google sized success story dwarfs the budget of the country so it's like you need to create a mindset of entrepreneurship you to have the you know some venture capital would be great but failure needs to be an option so a lot of Central and South American countries if you fail it's a black mark for life right here we call it success at X you know you celebrate a failure every week when something gives up their their their company and say we're gonna spend our money on our time someplace else better that's amazing so it's teaching that that mindset of failure I had this conversation with write to talk to one of our fellow trustees who who in India it's really hard if you fail you're screwed and so you don't take steps and so he wanted to sort of dismiss that ethos and so he was like we're gonna celebrate failure we're gonna celebrate a great idea that was worth trying that failed and give this person their next and next shot so speaking that mindset breakthrough and then we'll turn to one or two questions so it it's if you want to line up at the at the mic if people have questions you know you've now su is now trained I don't know thousands of people it must be now an exponential thinking and through XPrize and others who've also touched a lot of people and changed a lot of people's mindset about what is possible you know when you go back to the news reports on polio back in the early part of last century it's written in such a way that people never thought it could be over I come today when people speaking about cancer yes incremental progress but most people when you ask that they don't believe that in their lifetime we're gonna see the management and containment you know of cancer so identified for us three or four things that you think we should apply exponential breakthrough thinking and we're not doing today we're gonna look back 30 40 years from now and say we were people like polio you know looking at polio the same way that we should have had a different mindset sure so let me talk about where the places we're doing X prizes as a perfect example right so first of all we are in final steps for what I hope will be a hundred million dollar cancer XPrize for going beyond liquid biopsy but very early detection something like a blood test or something like a you know a pap smear or something that is tens of dollars very easy to do type of detection we're also working on an Alzheimer's XPrize same order of magnitude one of my favorite prizes that I want to do right now is a fire detection and extinction XPrize the idea that we don't know when a fire starts is ridiculous right so this is a simple XPrize for me a team has given five hundred square kilometers of forest land and you have to detect a fire above a certain looming level let's say five campfire is worth it right and you have to put it out within ten minutes and I don't care what how you do it with drones with water balloons whatever the case might be I think if that technology exists you insurance makes it possible and deploys it across all forest lands we don't have devastating forest fires again right so I'd love to do that working on a earthquake prediction XPrize I think it's a massive data play there's no way in the world that a magnitude 6 earthquake doesn't believe digital trails before and Alisha's know 30 Hiroshima bombs of energy working on a hurricane trajectory prediction XPrize so it turns out that that you know all those wide area projections of our hurricane caused devastation and if you can measure wind velocity at 10 meters above the center of the eye of a hurricane that's the missing data so is there a drone or technology for doing that accurately there's energy XPrize we're working on a feeding the next billion XPrize for massive protein food production the way that we grow our protein today this is a planet for cows if you didn't know right one third of our non ice landmass is used a Peter is used for is used for livestock production and that's crazy with co2 water energy and so forth so we've been working with a lot of the companies that are in the beginning of cultured meat to create a large-scale cultured meat XPrize for for meat and plant or stem-cell meat and plant-based derivative that tastes better than what you buy and it's finally I know you've been thinking about housing for a while in terms of the ability to medicine from next prize but in general can we provide housing you know for folks so with that we have time for two questions we have two questioners mostly Zechs prizes have to do with science and technology or when they evolve humans they treat humans as individual units how would you do an X PRIZE that involves connections between humans this in this the social space what would they be groups of people you mean invite a behavioral prizes yes yeah so to be clear X prizes they've been successful so far have been for widgets devices transportation modes and things like that where people can go and have a very clear measurable objective and can rapidly iterate we've talked about doing competitions between regions like cities or companies and so forth one of my favorite XPrize ideas and actually the very first person ever mentioned this was Larry Page would be a it's a two-part prize one would be a happiness X it's called a happiness XPrize could you build a device that could physiologically measure your state of happiness like if I asked right now are you happy number seven right and if the times gonna be a 10 or – whatever it is but if you can actually accurately measure they even creative you could create a policy change at Google and then measure didn't make people happier or not so I think the ability to measure something first and then create state changes afterwards would be my my approach to that but we haven't done it successfully yet we keep on banging our heads against it and continue to but thank you for that you talked a lot about accelerating technologies in the year Torterra future and my question had to do with do you think there's any risk of these accelerating technologies being misused by bad actors in the shorter near term yeah I'm thinking of things like China's Social Credit System which just seems kind of like I don't know a nightmare to me but like what are your thoughts on that yeah so the answer is of course and I would just say listen the Social Credit System first of all anybody who went through school and got an a a B or C or had a you know review we've had that all through our lives it's the negative externalities that are the issue with that but being able to tell a person how there's good parts of a social credit system if it's for the upside not for the downside just to be clear not to defend what they're doing they're to be very clear but yeah I'm clear that even though the world is getting better by almost every measure you know the cost of food energy water healthcare all these things are plummeting as life is going up as you know childhood mortality rates have plummeted from 45% of people of kids dying under age five to now 4% all these metrics are getting better and better and I think they'll continue to we're still gonna have terrorism we're still gonna have warfare we'll still they have a whole bunch of things the thing that gives me the greatest hope for for not being decimated is that it's harder or harder to do anything in secret it's the flip side of loss of privacy right that there are cameras all the time everywhere right a single autonomous car with a wide are generating 750 megabytes of data as it's going down the roads everything is being imaged whatever augmented reality goggles we're all gonna be wearing or gonna have you know millimeter cameras looking out you know 1.6 million drones flying over the sky is the United States so everything is going to be visualized and so your ability to do something in secret becomes harder and harder and that lets me sleep a little bit better at night but ultimately when I do my calculus the question is are there more good people in the world using these technologies or bad sure we're not leave that to you there thank you thank you so final word of advice to those in this room on livestream and then watch this on on YouTube around the world you're at a company like Google you're another company you're managing five 10 20 people maybe a hundred people what is your advice to somebody as they're growing their career as they're building products to kind of tap into the kind of you know exponential focus that you have and you kind of live every day but in the practical day-to-day sense what is your advice to folks so first of all don't do anything you don't absolutely love doing I don't have to say it more clearly than that I did do anything big and bold in the world and make a difference on the planet is hard it's extraordinarily hard and if you don't love doing what you're doing you're gonna give up before you get there right so any of my successes you know overnight successes after 11 years of hard work and I just did not I refuse to give up and sometimes there's an important point to give up but I didn't because you know for X Prize like is my zero-g company which anybody here flown in zero-g Marquez in again you know it took 11 years to get FA permission to do this with a 727 had a chance to fly Stephen Hawking no zero-g was amazing but I just refused to give up I mean I was like battling the FAA and I was saying you're gonna die or retire before I give up was my attitude and sometimes because only because I cared about it that much the other part is and this is one of the ethos of Google that the world's biggest problems are the world's biggest business opportunities right I mean I tell people probably the company that's made the biggest positive impact on the planet is Google right in terms of and you don't have to be a non-profit to create an incredibly better world and then you know going to become a billionaire helped a billion people so it's those kinds of mindsets I think that are convergent with the power that you have and never astrum underestimate what you can do each of you are extraordinarily powerful to solve problems you just have to have that committed passionate human mind great Peter thank you thank you very much you you

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