Primitive Technology: Blower and charcoal

Use palm leaf to make a paper fan Cut 25 cm Must be identical The fan leg Do a cold leg Cut into two pieces Fitted together Scratch the rock to make a base and not slip Blowing into the fire Collect some clay from the mound Collect palm fibers Knock the clay with the fibers I have already pointed to this so that the clay becomes firm Assemble clay Extraction diameter (medium clay) Set up an air intake Side building Work roof to open air One-way fire blower Turn the oven to make more air and push stronger Try it out Create a secondary tube for an anchored work Set up a fire oven Construction of 6 holes (Azrouf) in Tine Put the wood to dry the oven Clay Some warm charcoal To burn wood throw away charcoal From Ashov Ako fire means flimsy Sarhaln 3 hours Tru Mo Abalk how many minutes The second day after what cooled Hessian charcoal on a page and wood on a page next time Like before a little Qufun coal Chlon moves if not Water and thin iron (iron bacteria) Collect it hiss Dry it We protect the oven coal Bacteria (I do not know what is meant) 3 hours of workpiece second day My words Glazed oven The translation into Arabic was contributed by Ali Jaafar from Iraq To connect with me alibanilam in all social networking sites

Lecture -2 Review Of Network Technologies

in today's lecture would be looking at some of the basic concepts and backgrounds from computer networks which would be useful for us in the subsequent discussions so our topic of discussion today's review of network technologies so let us start with some very basic concepts of networking well you know a computer network is essentially a communication system for connecting computers now why we have computer networks you need arised out of a number of requirements of course better connectivity better communication were the main reasons this also allows you to have better sharing of resources suppose you have a printer connected with one computer in the network the others over the network can also have access to the printer and to top it all network allows us to bring people together it helps us in making the world a really small place these are some of the advantages that a network offers now talking of the types of computer networks that we have networks can be broadly categorized into either a local area network or a LAN and a wide area network orowan now let us try to see the basic differences between the two well in a LAN the idea is that the computers that are connected within a LAN they are within a relatively small geographical span well when we say relatively small span they may be in the same room a laboratory same building or within the same campus in contrast in a wide area network the hosts may be widely dispersed well it can be across buildings across cities across continents anything across countries anything so hosts are computers in a wide area network be really widely dispersed across campuses across cities countries continents now if you want to compare a LAN or a wine well but well in terms of economics a LAN is cheaper than a one a LAN is cheaper one is expensive in terms of performance and LAN is typically faster than a one there are other logistic differences also a LAN is under the control of a single organisation that means a LAN has a single ownership suppose in my organization I set up a LAN I will be the owner of that land it is my responsibility to manage upgrade if necessary and to configure it in a way I want to but in a 1 then a wide area network is not under the control of a single person say suppose I want to connect to my friend who is there in some other country I may have to go through a number of intermediate service providers and that may actually mean I am going through several you can say owners whose means this equals awareness or whose networks I am going through in order to reach my final destination so this ownership is another big difference between laner one this is in terms of the logistics just to compare in terms of some figures with respect to performance land you can work at speeds from 10 Mbps up to 10 Gbps GB means 1 Giga means 1000 mega now miss as we stand today typically land speeds today range from 100 Mbps to one gigabit per second those are the typical speeds we have today but in contrast in a wide area network speeds are as low as 64 kbps to 8 Mbps cost was also for a LAN it is mostly a one time cost of course there are maintenance charges but a very rough estimate you may have to pay about one crore for a hundred knowed state-of-the-art land but in contrast in a one Simmons if you go for a 4 Mbps link or an 8 Mbps link the typical cost will be same in 7c of the order of 30 lakhs per year this cost enough to pay as a as an annual maintenance order you can say it will be a recurring expense that is payable per year so in the long run a one will prove to be much more expensive now talking of the way data flows from one note to the other in a network well one principle of data communication is called circuit switching the basic concept beyond circuit switching is that a dedicated communication path is established or required between two stations the path that is established will follow a fixed sequence of intermediate nodes and links and on each link you define a logical channel and this logical channel gets dedicated to the connection well what does this logical mean I will just explain why shortly with respect to this diagram suppose this node a is the source and this node H is the final destination suppose we choose to select this path through which all packets will flow through the intermediate nodes a C D and G so a C D G H will be the path now this is a dedicated path so all the messages that a wants to send to H will will be following this path but in terms of the intermediate link well these intermediate links can be absolutely dedicated like the first generation telephone network whenever you dial a piece of copper would be dedicated for the connection so there will be intermediate stations the exchanges for some relay switches will be set on and off and a continuous copper wire or a link would be established between the two parties but in reality in a computer network the only links may not be dedicated maybe we have in between a very fast or high-speed link you need only a part of the bandwidth of that link so maybe that link will be shared but you will be guaranteed a particular bandwidth on that link so for all practical purposes you are having a dedicated path for the for the kind of bandwidth you want okay that is circuit switching so for circuit switching there are three steps that need to be followed for communication first is of course you have to establish a connection this is most important and this connection has to be established before data transmission can begin following connection establishment you need the actual data transfer now since a connection has been established and a dedicated path is there so data transfer can proceed at maximum speed without any other congestion so here the maximal speed of transmission which you want that will be guaranteed by the intermediate nodes and links and finally when you are done we have to terminate the connection this has to be done after data transmission is over so here your you will be actually deallocating the network resources like links and the bandwidths that you had allocated during connection establishment okay these are the steps involved drawbacks of circuit switching is that the channel capacity along the path gets dedicated along the entire duration of communication if your communication goes on for 20 minutes for example then for the entire 20 minutes the bandwidth will be dedicated along the paths you are establishing the link this may be alright for communication like voice because in a voice well continuously either you are speaking audio receiving the line is very rarely free but if you talk about computer traffic it is typically bursty in nature sometimes you have lot of traffic but sometimes there is no traffic so for this kind of a scenario the link will be unutilized for most parts of the time that is the drawback and secondly due to the initial connection setup there can be an initial delay which for some applications you may not like or hold or you may not want these are the drawbacks of circuit switching so to circumvent these drawbacks we actually use packet switching in modern day computer networks packet switching actually lays its foundation on the basic technology for long distance data communication but today packet switching is used even in case of short distance communication within a land within local area network so such a packet switching has become some kind of a de facto standard in most of the networks so the the characteristic feature of packet switching is that the network resources are not dedicated a link or the bandwidth on a link can be shared depending on the network load the actual performance you get you can vary ok so the basic technology of packet switching has evolved but the underlying concept has remained the same this is widely used as I said for long-distance communication but also for LAN environment we use something like packet switching in many cases now the essential idea of packet-switching is that when you have a big message to transmit the message gets broken up into smaller chunks or pieces these are called packets and these packets are sent in bins one at a time so data are transmitted in short packets typically few kilobytes long message is broken up into smaller chunks these are called packets and each packet contains a header which will contain relevant information so that the packet can reach the destination correctly so it will contain information the header in the packet which will be required for routing the packet in the proper way so this diagram shows how a message can be broken up into packets a message gets broken up into three packets and each packet will be having its own header this header will allow this packets to reach the destination and to have the intermediate nodes take the appropriate decision to route the packets accordingly okay and another notable feature of packet switching is that it is based on so-called store-and-forward concept the idea is that say you have a node here which wants to send a data through some intermediate nodes to a final destination out here so that is that when the first node sends out a packet the packet has to be sent and received in its entirety by the next node each intermediate network node will receive the whole packet it will take a routing decision which route to four because there can be a number of outgoing links which outgoing link to follow and finally it forwards the packet in the correct direction this is called store-and-forward because each intermediate node suppose I am an intermediate node well I will receive the packet in his entirety and I will store it in a buffer I will not try to send the packet as it has been received I will receive it fully I will check the packet if there are engine transmission errors there are some checksums usually added to the header then I will take a decision depending on the destination address who have to followed it next so then I will followed the packet to the next node so store-and-forward these are the two steps so advantages of packet switching is that since links can be shared so link utilization is obviously better this is suitable for computer generated traffic which I'd mentioned is bursty in nature since you are doing packet buffering you can perform data rate conversion like I am given example suppose my incoming link is faster than my outgoing link I can receive packets at a faster rate so I can receive packets and store in a buffer and I can take my time to send them over my outgoing link slowly so some data rate conversion can take place here and also you can have the notion of packet priority where the high priority packets will be sent first they will be incurring less delay now regarding the mode of the way the packets are transmitted there are two alternate approaches these are called virtual circuits and Datagram the abstract network model will be the same as as shown earlier so there will be a number of nodes abcdefgh which will be connected by links and the main responsibility of the packet switching will be to send the data from some node say a to a destination node say H this will be the main responsibility so let us now see what the virtual circuit approach actually is virtual circuit approach in a sense it is similar to circuit switching in the sense that all the packets will follow the same path but it is different from circuit switching in the sense that resources along the path are not dedicated if the route is congested the packets will take longer time if the root is not congested the packets can move faster so the path is fixed but the quality of service or the bandwidth along the path is not guaranteed okay so this is similar in concept to circuit switching here again the route has to be established before the packet transmission starts because we told you all packets will follow the same path all packets follow the same path and the links comprising the path unlike circuit switching are not dedicated and an analogy is the modern day telephone system where the exchanges are digital exchanges none of the links are dedicated they are often shared and whenever you send a packet from your handset to a destination handset but typically follow the same path but maybe over a number of shared links in between so in virtual circuit approach if you try to understand how it actually works well as I said initially you need a connection establishment phase where the route is established a priori now once the route is established along the route a packet will be forwarded from one node to the other using that same store and forward scheme so here also although the same path is followed but you cannot send the packets as the bits are received continuously but we have to receive a packet store and then follow to the it's not the next one will do the same thing it will first receive its tour and then again followed it to the link that follows in this so it will go on and one characteristic here is that since the route is established a priori so in the packet header you need not store the destination address explicitly rather you can only store a virtual circuit number which can be carried by each packet and all the intermediate nodes can keep track of the virtual circuit number for example when the connection gets established all the intermediate node will have some entry made in the routing table that well this is a connection which is coming from that node some virtual circuit number is assigned say I so if it is coming from virtual circuit number I then will be sending it over this outgoing link so it only looks at the virtual circuit number of the incoming packet it need not look at any any address in the address of the source or destination only the virtual circuit number is required so so that said this requires each of the intermediate nodes to maintain a table this table is created during the route establishment phase at the beginning and the table is consulted when the packets are forwarded to the correct outgoing link now here since at the time the packets are actually coming the route is already fixed and already there in the routing table just the routing to intermediate node what they do they are just looking at the virtual circuit number just doing a table lookup and sending it to the output so it is not trying to apply any intelligence so there is no dynamic routing decision that has been taken by the intermediate node it is a blind table lookup right in contrast datable approach is different from virtual circuit in the sense that there is no concept of a root establishment since there is no root each packet is treated as an independent entity and are transmitted separately suppose there are five packets they will be sent independently one by one now since they are independent there is no history of the packets maintained anywhere this is like the postal system just an analogy like in a postal system you recall when we post a letter we write the address of the destination and also we write the address of the person who is sending the letter and drop it in the mailbox now suppose I write five letters to the same person and I post them now as our mail system works there is no guarantee that the Mail's will receive the destination in the correct order there is no guarantee as to the time limit exactly by what date the mail will be delivered and even some mail may not at all we deliver some mail may get lost so all these characteristics are also true for the Datagram so Datagram can be used in those application where the application knows that these kind of errors can occur on equal time delay out of delivery of packets some packets may get lost so if you need error recovery that has to be done by the application explicitly but in general Datagram packet switching is fast because it does not follow a fixed route the route might get congested so and some other thing is there for the Datagram approach since each Datagram Arsene independently so every intermediate node has to take routing decision dynamically for every incoming packet for every incoming packet you are taking a decision where to followed it so now the intermediate routing nodes have additional responsibilities they receive a packet look at the destination IP address and take a decision where to send it this kind of decisions have to be taken so they again use a routing table but they need the source is not that much important at least the destination address of the packet is important so the intermediate node will take a decision dynamically based on the destination address now the now problems that I'd mentioned that due to unequal delays packets may be delivered out of order why because since we are not fixing a path two packets may follow two different routes and they may they may arrive the destination in a different order it is always possible and if there is a problem there is a node crash say say a node B comes down momentarily then all the packets that were queued on that node will also get lost and in some systems if you do not get acknowledgement a packet is retransmitted so in such systems even duplicate packets may get generated in the same packet may be delivered more than once but determines in spite of the problem has some advantages first thing is that it is faster than virtual circuit for smaller number of packets because you do not need to have a route establishment and termination phase it is more flexible because depending on the network traffic you can choose the best route in virtual circuit once you fix the route all packets are bound to follow that route but now if a link is down or is choked you can choose an alternate path these options are available to you back as we need to host me follow different paths so it can handle congestion or failed linked situations if you want to compare the different approach circuit switching virtual circuit packet switching on Datagram packet switching then enough to estimate delays the total delay that we encounter now there are three types of delays you can talk about the first type is propagation delay this is the time taken by a data signal to propagate from one node to the next suppose I am trying to send a data signal through a satellite link now the round-trip satellite link may take as large as 250 milliseconds so here my propagation delay will be 250 milliseconds propagation delay has nothing to do with the speed of the link it is just a delay okay transmission time depends on the speed of transmission say here I can have a link which is working at 64 kilobit per second I can have a link which is working at 10 megabits per second 1 gigabit per second these figures tell me how fast I can send out the bits on the link so if I have a packet of a particular size the speed of the link will determine that how many milliseconds or microseconds will be required to send out the whole packet okay this is the so-called transmission time and finally each of the nodes are doing that store-and-forward so there can be some processing delay in each of the nodes we have after storing it can check whether the packet is correct or not it can high it may have to if you have to compute a checksum then it may have to consult the routing table were to send it next and if there are multiple packets in the queue some queuing delay that is encountered these are the additional processing delay now in case of circuit switching here after initial circuit establishment data bits can be sent continuously without any delay well when we sick in you ously what I'm saying is that bit by bit continuous well in circuit switching there is no concept of a packet once the circuit is established if my total message comprises of 1 million bits the 1 million bits will flow continuously so the entire link will get choked during that whole period and it will be 100% utilized ok in contrast virtual circuit packet switching will require the so called call request packets at the beginning for establishing the connection so from one node to the other this coil request packets will go and finally it will reach the destination and from the destination there will be an acknowledgment or a call except packet which will follow back through the same route up to the source so this forward and backward Packers will serve the purpose of two things number one it will confirm that the route has been established number two it will allow the intermediate nodes to to update the routing table with the virtual circuit number in a proper way appropriately so call request packet goes and call accept back and returns back and after the packet switching is established this link is established packets are sent sequentially in a pipeline fashion but you remember that here you are not sending the packet continuously on a bit by bit basis this is on a store and forward basis the path has been established I sent the first packet to the next node then I send the next packet well if you think of the next node the next node will receive the first packet totally then it will send it back so there will be a delay so you can say that each stage will be having a delay equal to the propagation time plus the transmission time so it is more like a a pipeline system which is working the packets are moving in a pipeline fashion it is not continuous it is that my packet it is moving from one hop to the other one note to the other this is the basic difference and in case of the Datagram packet switching there is no initial call establishment or or at the end called termination delay the packets are sent out independently may follow different paths but but once a path is followed again it will follow a stolen forward approach so for both virtual circuit and the Datagram the packets are forwarded using the stolen forward approach which will which will always be there so when you try to calculate the total delay that is encountered by a packet you will have to calculate all the things the packet transmission delay the propagation delay and also take care of the fact that the packet is going to the next node or the next hop then only the next stop will be sending it back to the next one so it will have to wait till the whole packet is received before it can send it to the next okay fine now let us have a quick look at the so called layered network architecture which has become so popular in the design of networking systems well the open system interconnection or OSI reference model this has become some kind of a model against which this two other networking protocols are compared now strictly speaking there is no implementation of this seven layer model per se but there are other implementations which are correlated to the seven layer model and they are evaluated now this OSI model comprises of seven layers as you shall see shortly the purpose of this layers is that the network or communication functions are partition in a well-defined way into a hierarchical set of layers the basic objective is that we are trying to having a systematic approach to design of designing the whole thing at a white one go were trying to divide it up into smaller subtasks and try to address or design the subtasks independently and another objective is that if you want to change one layer this may not require you to change the other layers if you have the design in different layers this is one advantage you will have so the seven layers of the OSI model are these from the bottom physical Data Link Network transport session presentation and application now as well see in a slide a little later the lower three layers are called point-to-point layers because these layers are these you can say protocols and software are active in all the nodes through which a packet passes suppose this was a source from here the packet is going here from here it is coming here from there it is coming to the final destination so these are the intermediate links so there are three point-to-point links through which the communication passes on the packet passes so the lower three layers are active in all these four nodes but the upper four layers these are called host-to-host layers these are active only between the end nodes not between the others this is the main difference now let us start to see what are the basic functions of these seven layers the function of the physical layer is to actually transmit the data in terms of a raw bit stream transmit raw bit stream over a physical medium now when we say physical medium it can be a copper where where the bits are sent as voltages it can be a wireless link through which bits are sent using some kind of frequency modulation it can be an optical fiber where bits are sent by switching on and off some light beams so this is how it is done and means it it can also do some kind of encoding for example instead of sending the bits in a straight of example in the Ethernet protocol they use an encoding called differential Manchester so this kind of encoding is done before you are actually transmitting the data over the physical link now this encoding gives us our advantages like the receiver can easily decode the data or you can have possibly better utilization of the link and so on data link layer the next layer above physical this tries to ensure reliable transfer of frames so at this layer the the unit of transmission of chunks are called frames so it ensures reliable transfer of frames over a point-to-point link so the data link layer takes care of two things flow control and error control flow control means if the senders and receivers their speeds do not match then the data link layer will try to tell the faster person that well you don't try to send or receive so fast go with my speed otherwise I cannot keep pace with you and error control is that if some frame is in error the data link layer protocol can explicitly send back a request to the sender that well this frame this either I have not received or I have received with an error you please send the frame again so in this way the errors can be recovered network layer it establishes maintains and terminates connection so it is the network layer which is responsible for routing packets through point-to-point links then comes the transport layer there is an end-to-end layer in the sense that all intermediate nodes are not visible to the transport layer the transport nerve used the intermediate natok as a black box only the source and the destination are there as if they are connected via direct virtual link transport layers view is like this and at this virtual link level this transport layer also tries to ensure reliable data transfer with again error recovery and flow control at the higher level session layer it manages sessions presentation it can provide data independence it can provide some sort of data encryption conversion into a common format and so on an application is the actual user application which which is interfaced here now in practice this session presentation application you may not very clearly distinguish among these three they can be merged into one single block but this seven layers have been defined with with an eye towards distributing the functionality across the layer so that if you have an application or an environment where all these seven functionalities are required then you can basically separate them out in the different layers just a diagram to show how data flows in the seven layer model suppose this is the source this is the destination and these are two intermediate nodes a and B data flows from s to a a to B and B to D this s and D are the final source and destinations and a and B are intermediate nodes so so the other said that they lower three layers they must be running on all the nodes including the intermediate nodes so the lower three layers are running on all the nodes and the and upper four layers they are providing some kind of a virtual link as you can see that the transport layer out here and the transport layer out here they having a direct communication link these are virtual link but when the actual data transmission is concerned say the the application layer which is out here this will send the data along this path the data packets will successively flow down the seven-layer hierarchy it will go down to the physical layer level it will actually reach the node ace physical layer it will go up to node is network layer out here so the network layer it can take a decision where because from a there can be again more than one outgoing links okay so from here again it will choose one of the outgoing links sent it to be in V again it will go up to the network layer again coming down to the physical layer then it goes to C to D and here to the destination and again it again follow the reverse path and moves all the way up the ladder up to the application layer so you can see that in this seven layer model the data packets flow down the hierarchy up down up down and again at the final destination up up to the application layer this is how the actual message transmission takes place across the hierarchy of the layers and the other point note is that the intermediate nodes through which the packets are sent they did not have any functionality above the third layer okay the lower three layers are essential now we just have a look at the different kinds of internetworking devices which you use in practice now internetworking is a general term internetworking means it is a means through which we can connect several networks together so when you talk about internet working devices we are actually trying to talk about devices using which we can connect two or more networks together so let's see what are the main kinds of internet working devices we have well there's something called a hub well the hub can extend the span of a single LAN well hub is a box in which there are several ports and in each of these ports you can connect a computer or you can connect another hub so in this way you can extend the span of a LAN a hub is used within a single LAN and hub can be used to extend the size or the capacity of land at the next higher level you can have something called a bridge which is also called a layer to switch a bridge or a switch can be used to connect two or more lands together and this works at the data link layer or sometimes is called the medium access control layer level mac layers level so bridge layer 2 switches they use not the IP address but something like the ethernet or the MAC address for taking decisions that how to followed the frames from one land to the other right and at the next higher level you have the routers or the so called layer 3 switches this can connect any combination of lands and once they work at the network layer level in particular in the internet they use their there is the IP address they use the IP protocol and the IP address for taking the decision so a hub can connect several computers inside a single land a bridge can connect several lands together a router can connect lands with ones it is most general now a quick look at some of the typical pictures so in a typical campus wide network some is suppose you have an organizational network where there are several departments so a typical Network will look like this there will be several departmental networks and there will be a central backbone which will be connecting all the departmental networks together now if you think of an educational institution here also we have the notion of several departments level buildings buildings are connected together by a network which is called the backbone Network now the entire thing is a LAN but in terms of the way they are actually deployed and used typically the speed of the backbone network is higher as compared to the speed of the departmental network because it is expected that the that backbone network will be carrying more traffic as compared to the individual departmental networks just to look at some of the alternate technologies that are available for the backbone network you can have Fast Ethernet you can have fiber distributed data interface both of which work at 100 Mbps you can have atm ATM stands for asynchronous transfer mode it works at about 500 Mbps you can have Gigabit Ethernet which works at 1000 Mbps or 1 Gbps for the department network you can have switched Ethernet you can have bus based Ethernet now now if you try to look at a state-of-the-art solution the state-of-the-art solution will comprise of a backbone network which can work at 1 Gbps you can have a department network which can work at 100 Mbps switched Ethernet LAN that is some sort of a you can say state-of-the-art network now just to look at a department Network this is a very rough picture of a departmental network further on one side you are connected to a backbone by a very fast link this can be a Gigabit Ethernet link now inside the department you can have a main Ethernet switch there can be several hubs you can have your computers servers all connected to them this is just one level I've shown there can be multiple levels of switches and hubs so this is how the network the different machines and the servers can be connected together inside a network you have a main switch in the department under which there can be hubs there can be other switches and all the computers are connected below that okay this is how it is done and for connection to the outside world you can have a scenario like this but suppose this is your Institute Network you can have a number of outside connections like you can have a router through which you can have multiple links you can have a link with a satellite connection you can have a link with a wireless link you can have a leased line link you can have a telephone line link through a modem so if you have a link through a telephone line typically it is done through a modem but if you have either leased line radio link or you can have a satellite link or satellite can be in the sky you can have a satellite link so all these links can be through a router so these are the alternate technologies I am just trying to mention without going into the detail so if you were an organizational network you will have to solve the problem of connecting the computers inside and also will have to solve the problem of how to connect these computers to the outside world will see how links to the outside world are to be made because ultimately your task will be to have this machines connected to the Internet and for Internet you will have to rely on some Internet service provider which will be providing you a connection from your LAN to the outside world okay so this brings me to the end of today's lecture but what I would be following in this lecture as well as the lectures to follow is that at the end of every lecture I try to give you some suggestive questions or some quiz questions which you can try to solve and also I try to give you the solution of the questions that are posed in the previous classes now since in the previous class I did not pose any question it was an introductory class so in this class I'll only state the quiz questions for today's lectures now just one thing I also want to say that whatever has been covered here and whatever quiz questions had been posed at the end of the lecture these are just suggestive questions he was strongly urged to look into reference material to look into textbooks to work out some more exercises and problems to get much better feeling of the subject so that you can be much more confident about solving a problem once it is given to you now let us look at the quiz questions on today's lectures okay the first question says that with respect to speed of data transfer which of LAN or one is faster this is a question second one what is the typical speed of a modern Ethernet backbone LAN well when I say a modern Ethernet backbone line of course there are alternatives I am expecting that means you will be telling the state-of-the-art technology what the state-of-the-art Ethernet technology supports today okay the third question why is circuit switching not suitable for computer to computer traffic I had mentioned that competitive computer traffic is bursty in nature I think the answer lies there you can try to figure out the answer question four what are the three steps that are required for data communication using circuit switching question five with respect to the sharing of links which of circuit switching or packet switching is more suitable well here let me repeat once that although I had talked about this technologies in my regular lecture I had talked about there are some links which will be dedicated some links which are shared but in today's technology none of the links or the physical links are dedicated what we see as dedicated are their resources along the link for instance I may have a link which supports say one megabit per second in capacity suppose I am multiplexing several voice links over it each voice link requires 64 kilobit per second this means that I can carry 16 such filings over this 1 Mbps link so I am NOT dedicating the entire link to any one voice link but I am I am assigning or dedicating fixed 64 kbps or 64 kbps of dedicated bandwidth to each voice link this is what I mean by dedicating a logical link means across a path look now question number 6 among virtual circuit and Datagram which approach requires less information in the packet header well for answering this quiz this question you need to understand that how the packets are forwarded in virtual circuit and Datagram what are the roles of the intermediate nodes and what kind of information the intermediate nodes are using to take the routing decision so I think the answer will come from there seven which are virtual circuit and Datagram makes better utilization of the links simple eight which a virtual circuit and Datagram will guarantee order delivery of packets in the absence of any errors nine under what circumstances will the Datagram method of packet delivery prove useful see here I had mentioned the lecture that Datagram method will be faster in general but you can try to figure out what kind of applications may gain by using using datagrams because one thing is true I had mentioned datagrams do not guarantee delivery the destination there can be some packets which are not received some out of order delivery so some applications which would not mind if this kind of things happen they will be or or some environment where the chances of errors occurring a less most of the packets will be following in the same path so here you can try to find out some environment or some situations where this kind of things exist and and Datagram packet switching would be advantageous number ten five packets need to be sent from host a to another host P five means a small number which of virtual circuit or Datagram reef faster number 11 a small numerical problem for a 5 kilobytes size packet sent over a 10 Mbps transmission link what is the transmission time of the packet this was can very easily calculate what is the time taken for one full packet to get transmitted over this link number to elf again a small numerical question a 600 byte packet is sent over a 20 kbps point-to-point link whose propagation delay is also specified the propagation delay recall is the time taken for 1 bit to go from one end of the channel to the other it has nothing to do with the speed of the channel okay these two are different after how much delay will the packet reach the destination just here I am giving a hint here the total delay will be equal to the propagation delay plus the packet transmission delay okay this you must calculate in this way which layers in the OSI model are the host-to-host layers what is the responsibility of the network layer in the OSI model what is the responsibility of the datalink layer in the OSI model what is the basic difference between a bridge and a router so I believe we have discussed all these things you should not find in difficulty in answering these questions now in our next module will be starting our discussion on tcp/ip which will be laying you can say the foundation for our future discussions on network routing architectures internet protocols and other technologies so with this we come to the end of today's lecture thank you this lecture is entitled tcp/ip part 1 so in this module 2 we would be covering the topics in three lectures here would be mainly talking about the TCP IP protocols in fact TCP IP is not a single protocol it is a suit or a family of protocols we would be looking at some of the important members of this family but first let us try to understand what DCP IP is and how it has evolved over a period of time okay so talking about the Internet TCP IP is a protocol which well you can say it started as early as in the 1970s and it got very quickly accepted by a white community of users in fact when the internet came into the being TCP IP was the prime vehicle which was used to connect the computers in the internet and to allow them to communicate over the network using tcp/ip the computers were able to communicate among each other and also another very important thing they were able to share some resources across the network some of the resources like disk space or some of the some of the expensive equipments were expensive in those days and over the network it was possible to share those resources now let us have a very quick look at the important members of the tcp/ip family this diagram summarizes the different important family members in tcp/ip of course at the lower level we have the data link and the hardware layers this refers to the network interface card as I told you typically we use Ethernet at this level at the next higher level this is the network layer level in tcp/ip the protocol that works at the network layer level is called Internet Protocol or in short IP so IP is the main protocol which is working at the network layer level but in addition there are several auxiliary protocols like Internet control message protocol group message protocol address resolution protocol and reverse address resolution protocol which also works at the network layer level but they have specific functions like ICMP is used to generate and send some error messages like for example address resolution protocol is used to translate from an IP address into an Ethernet address for example so IGMP and rarp also has some specific purposes but in a typical application you will be using Internet Protocol these protocols are typically hidden from the applications these are invoked and used in a transparent way as a user you will not be able to see that they are being used or as a programmer also you will not be using them directly

Digital transformation: are you ready for exponential change? Futurist Gerd Leonhard, TFAStudios

Once upon a time business as usUal was often good enough No more where we are going good enough is dead In a world where everything is connected Where everything is equally excellent [where] performance is reaching perfection. There's only one space [left] to innovate in you Right now you are a central point of the raging tornado of change Fueled by digitization mobilization augmentation disintermediation Automation well the list goes on science fiction is becoming science fact Think about self-driving cars or computers that can learn and think The way we work will never be the same the skills. We [need] will be dramatically different Winning or losing are now happening faster than ever before So what's your response? How will you discover new opportunities in one of the most transformational times in Human history? Are you driving change, or are you being driven by it? disruption has become the new normal With change it's always gradually than suddenly well things really have stopped happening gradually this change is exponential Everything that used to be dumb and disconnected is now. [why] [are]? Intelligent cars cities Poets farms even our bodies will be wired with sensors and will talk to each other These game changes are also Combinatorial they amplify each other creating a perfect storm of change Quantum computing Fuels Big Data the Internet-of-things fields artificial intelligence and deep learning which Fields robotics however Anything that cannot be digitized or automated will become extremely valuable Human only traits such as creativity imagination Intuition emotion and ethics will be even more important in the [future] Because machines are very good at simulating but not at being Yes robots and software will do some of our work, but this will allow [us] to focus on things that cannot be [automated] To imagine change squared you've got to start engaging more with what might be not just with what is Immerse yourself in the immediate future five to seven years out from today we need to go Beyond technology and Data to reach human insights and wisdom Technology represents the [howl] of change, but humans represent the why the future is about holistic business model The opportunity is to be liquid to learn just in time not just in case not single Improvements, but complete transformations not individual systems, but new Ecosystems Humanity is where true and lasting value is created.

We will engage wait and buy things because of the Experiences they provide because of their transformative power The future doesn't just happen the future gets happened The new way to work is to embrace technology But not to become it The future is in technology Yet the bigger future lies in transcending it Let's live and lead from here world of the boat

Top 10 Revolutionary Mobile Technologies

These are the ten mobile electronics devices
that have changed the world the most. The rankings factor in the boost they gave
to human productivity, learning, and quality of life. Handheld video games were the first form of
electronic entertainment that you could throw in your backpack or your pocket and take on
the go–they were a great way to kill some time. What first came out in the 1970’s were single
games with a tiny screen like Mattel Auto Race and Game and Watch,
but in 1989 Nintendo introduced the iconic Game Boy. An 8 bit system with individual game paks
that could be swapped out. Two years later Sega released the sleek Game
Gear which proved to be Game Boy’s biggest rival, although Gameboy outsold it 10-1. For 25 years, Nintendo has dominated the handheld
gaming market with products like the Game Boy Color, the Game Boy Advance and the DS,
which sold 154 million units, making it the most popular handheld console of all time
and just 1 million units behind the #1 overall video game console of all-time, the playstation

Single-purpose handheld video games have had
their market cut out from under them with the rise of smartphone and tablet gaming apps. The ability to play any audio recording instantly
was a major upgrade over the analog past where a specific point on a cd or cassette tape
had to be referenced for a recording to play. Digital media files didn’t skip when bumped
or jostled like a portable cd player and digital memory capacity meant hundreds or even thousands
of files could be stored on a tiny device after loading them from a computer.

Eventually images and videos could be stored
and viewed on these devices as well. Back in 1979, British scientist Kane Kramer
designed one of the earliest prototype players capable of one hour of play time. From 1997-2001 several companies debuted various
Mp3 players, but it wasn’t until Apple introduced the iPod in October 2001 that the industry
really took off. By 2007, Apple had sold its one-hundred millionth
iPod, positioning the company for its big iPhone release later that year. The first truly portable audio player, cassettes
players allowed you to enjoy whatever music you felt like listening to at that moment,
on the go, for the first time. There were some portable 8-track players before,
but the Sony Walkman – introduced in 1979 – was smaller, and allowed the user to listen
with headphones (which made the music sound great), and played cheap, widely available
cassettes that were becoming the industry standard. You could even record whatever you wanted
from many different artists and then take it with you. And boom! The concept of the mixtape was born. Cassettes eventually gave rise to the CD player,
and then the Mp3 player. One of the interesting things about the walkman
was that it featured a refined marketing campaign that portrayed it as a possession you had
to have if you were culturally up to date and had the money to buy new electronics,
since other people would see you using it on the street.

It worked, Sony sold 385 million units until
it discontinued it in 2010. It may be the least exciting device on this
list, but the electronic calculator was a massively important tool in building our modern
society. It helped our businesses operate more efficiently,
our students learn more complex math problems, and our greatest thinkers tackle the world’s
toughest challenges. In 1963 the first fully electronic desktop
calculator- called the Anita – hit the market.

It weighed 33 pounds, used dozens of vacuum
tubes and cost thousands of dollars. By 1972, with many companies in the game,
pocket-sized calculators were now selling for under $100 and the first scientific calculator
– the HP-35 – was introduced. By 1985 we had the first graphing calculator. Now, scientists and engineers use software
on their computers to perform their calculations. The Global Positioning System – or GPS – was
originally a project of the United States military that became fully operational in
1995. It’s evolved into an increasingly vital
tool in many segments of the 21st century global economy, but it’s especially useful
for transportation, and will play a central role in the coming self-driving car revolution.

There are currently 31 healthy GPS satellites
in orbit around the earth, timed so no less than 6, but usually as many as nine or ten,
have a direct line of sight to a GPS device operating on the surface of the Earth at any
moment to provide an accurate location reading. Standalone GPS devices were a revelation in
navigation. Companies like Garmin and Magellan hit the
market with affordable turn-by-turn voice directed products by the mid-2000s. Now, smartphone apps like Waze and Google
Maps are taking over the market. Since the United States controls GPS, other
countries want their own systems. In 2011 Russia finished updating its GLONASS
system to cover the whole world. Europe and China will soon have global systems
of their own, and India and Japan will have regional systems in place in the next three

The digital camera eliminated the time consuming,
expensive hassle of having to process your photographs. Since the images were now stored on digital
memory instead of film, you could take many more pictures, ensuring you got the perfect
shot every time. It also helped to have a digital screen that
immediately displayed the photos you had taken. The first person to try building a digital
camera was Eastman Kodak engineer Steven Sasson in 1975. It recorded .01 megapixel black and white
images to a compact cassette tape. The first popular digital compact camera was
Kodak’s DC 210 which hit the market in 1998 and offered megapixel resolution for under
$1,000, which was quite a breakthrough. It’s the forefather to the point and shoots
we know today. 2003’s release of the Canon Rebel DSLR for
under $1,000 brought the DSLR into the mass marketplace. Today, smartphones are taking over digital
photography. But just 14 years ago, digital photography
accounted for only 1% of the photos taken worldwide, but now its over 99%.

Of those that make it online, the vast majority
are being stored on Facebook, which has more than 300 million photos added to it every
single day. A century after Alexander Graham Bell invented
the telephone, if you had to make or receive a call, or conduct business over the phone,
you were still leashed to a landline. But with the rise of the mobile phone in the
1980’s, that leash was cut. Now you can communicate with anyone at anytime,
wherever you are. The mobile phone also allowed for text messaging,
an even more efficient way of communicating. The first ever handheld mobile phone sold
to the public was the Motorola DynaTAC in 1984 for a cost of $4,000. It featured just 30 minutes of talk time. As more companies entered the hyper competitive
market, mobile phones continued to get smaller and gain more and more features [show a fairly
rapid fire photo slideshow of these]. In the early 2000s, Nokia introduced a series
of highly acclaimed phones that are the best-selling mobile phones in history, featuring several
units that were sold hundreds of millions of times. In 2004, Motorola released the RAZR, which
dominated the market and ushered in the flip phone revolution that continued until the
touchscreen smartphone took over about four years later.

From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone
subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion, about 87% of the global population. The development of video allowed for the proliferation
of television and film, and has given rise to smaller video cameras that allow anyone
with just a few hundred dollars to start making videos or films. With a picture worth a thousand words, video
has allowed humanity to connect like never before, and has led directly to the rise of
YouTube, the Internet’s third most visited website. The first electronic cameras relied on cathode
ray tubes, which used an evacuated glass envelope that was large, fairly heavy, and fragile. This gave way to the more reliable solid state
image sensor. Sony’s 1983 Betamovie was the first consumer
camcorder. In 1995 the major manufacturers all released
DV video cameras which quickly became the go-to for home video producers and independent
filmmakers. In 2003 HDV made HD video recording affordable
for the consumer. Tapeless recording – often on a smartphone
– has become the go-to standard. The next steps in video is 3D and 4K, although
its unclear right now which one consumers will favor. Smartphones have changed the world.

In addition to making and receiving voice
calls, they double as a high definition still and video camera, an mp3 player, scheduler,
calculator, clock, notepad, video player, gaming machine, and a whole myriad of other
things thanks to apps which we download for free, or for a few bucks at the most. The first mobile phone to integrate the features
of a personal digital assistant was the 1994 Simon by IBM and the first smartphones to
achieve commercial success in the United States following the wildly popular NTT DOCOMO in
Japan, were the Blackberry and the Palm in the early 2000’s.

In 2007 Apple introduced the iPhone, the first
touchscreen device to go mainstream. This was a revolutionary moment in the history
of mobile electronics, and its effects are still being felt 7 years later. But now, Samsung is the dominant smartphone
manufacturer, selling more smartphone units in the first quarter of 2014 than its next
four competitors – including Apple – combined. The ability to take a powerful, versatile
computing machine anywhere was an important moment in human history that has dramatically
increased our productivity. With the development of wireless technology
and processing power, laptops have driven the full blown mobile computing revolution
that’s increasingly freeing us from our large, immobile pcs. Back in 1975 IBM sold the first portable computer
[], but the first device that looked anything
like the clamshell designed hinged laptops we use today was the 1982 Dulmont Magnum. In the mid 1980’s, Zenith Data Systems developed
the first commercially successful laptop computer. The company got a huge boost by winning several
contracts with the US Government worth more than $100 million to provide it with thousands
of machines.

The month of May 2005 marked the first time
laptops outsold desktop computers in the US. And one more fascinating fact: according to
a security report from Dell, everyday, 1,600 laptops are stolen from people in US airports
alone. That’ll do it. Thanks for watching. I really hoped you enjoyed this video. Which mobile device do you think changed the
world the most?.

10 New Technologies That Will Make You A Cyborg!

oh hey how are you don't my knee just pulling a Jaime Lannister over here just kidding it's actually the Infinity Gauntlet I'm from the future science fiction often presents us with an exaggerated idea of the future of humanity fused with technology mechanical bodies Bionic eyes and interchangeable limbs are all things that sound really cool and futuristic except that it's not science fiction nor is it the future these things are available right now here are 10 new technologies that will make you a cyborg number 10 is a finger flash drive fingers are what make mankind superior or at the very least advanced over the animal kingdom and allow us to do all kinds of things like use tools well finish computer programmer Jerry jalaja took that to a whole nother level when he installed a 2 gigabyte USB flash drive into one of his fingers hey lady don't mind me just download and yo info the cyber fingered man from Finland didn't remove the ring finger on his left hand to accomplish this goal instead he actually lost it in a motorcycle accident when he crashed into a deer the doctors joked that since he was a computer nerd he might as well replace his finger with a finger drive but jalaja took them up on that his fake finger looks like a real finger but it's detachable so he can insert it into a computer now that's all well and good but I'm sure you're thinking the same as me why would you insert a 2gig flash drive that is a very small amount you can get like a terabyte on that biatch now think ahead bruh think ahead number 9 are smart prosthetic limbs you can do almost anything with a smart phone nowadays from order dinner to meet the love of your life and take super flattering selfies with digital cat ears but did you know that you can also control prosthetic limbs touch bionics has created an AI limb that's like Luke Skywalker's hand in Star Wars with five individually powered fingers and a rotating thumb and wrist it is the most dexterous prosthetic hand ever be created with 24 different grips that the wearer can select with the app on their phone hey hey nice to meet you just one second I got to control it to shake your hand just just give me a second but it's not just your phone the I Lim can also be controlled with muscle signals using electrodes in the wrist that communicate with the device's computer to perform preset movements right now the island has an aluminum chassis but they're developing artificial skin for those who basically don't want to be confused with the Terminator hey Matt nice to meet you yeah nice to meet you you like to shake my hand I'm a computer number eight is a 3d printed heart organ transplants and the long list of sick people that are waiting for donors to die so that they can live might become a thing of the past if 3d printing technology continues to grow at the current rate Nicholas COAS a doctor student at Swiss science university ETH Zurich created the first 3d printed heart with a complex inner structure using soft flexible material the biggest problem with artificial hearts on the market today is that the hard metal and plastic mechanics do not integrate well into human tissue causing infection in damaging the blood due to the unnatural rhythm his model is far simpler being a single functioning unit that fills in deflates to create a pumping action much like a real heart now while it is still in beta it does show proof of concept that 3d organs could work much better in the near future again keep in mind this is not some video game it's a heart and you don't want to put a heart that's in beta because if that glitch is you're gonna be like uh number seven are auditory brainstem implants if you ask grade schooler Caden Moran in 2014 can you hear me he definitely couldn't because unfortunately he was born deaf without leas so the standard cochlear implant wouldn't work however young Caden was part of an experimental study at the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles to test auditory brainstem implants or a bi that is connected to a microphone and transmitter on his head electrical signals are broadcast into the brain implant that stimulate the auditory neurons the hearing center of the brain by bypassing the inner ear entirely according to leave pediatric neurosurgeon dr.

Mark Creager the procedure is best suited to young children whose brains can grow and develop around the implant and amazingly Caden can now hear his family for the first time although technically his supersonic hearing is still in beta what an incredible gift however he has supersonic hearing what does that mean can he like hear through walls and stuff because that would basically make him a superhero number six are interchangeable limbs wouldn't it be great if you could switch out limbs for various occasions you know like small legs for airplane rides in coach and long legs for Beyonce concerts well biophysicist an engineer at MIT Hugh Herr is way ahead of you because after losing his legs below the knee to frostbite in a mountain climbing accident he created his own line of specialized prosthetic legs for different activities like running swimming and ice climbing her has developed a number of patents but it's his bionic ankle the biome that is truly incredible it uses sensors and computers as well as a battery to allow amputees to walk with full control and without losing any energy he claims that the biome will soon be merged with the human body and by the end of the 21st century physical disabilities will be a thing of the past I've never thought of having Bionic ankles but hey start small and move all the way up the futures now number five is an artificial pancreas diabetes is one of the leading killers of people in the first world and as diets become uniformly bad with globalization it's also starting to kill many people in the third world as well the disease is a result of a malfunctioning pancreas that's supposed to regulate the insulin levels in the body and lowers glucose levels so that we don't get hypoglycemia but thanks to modern Edinson we now have the artificial pancreas sometimes called the Bionic pancreas that can be implanted into the body to regulate insulin levels so that patients don't have to the way they work is that they react to a diabetics current glucose levels and if necessary pause insulin delivery once a safe level is achieved these artificial pancreas are already saving lives and allowing diabetics to eat well whatever they want just one more excuse to eat chocolate cake which is something I don't need number four is the super carbon arm Metal Gear Solid gamers rejoice because snakes prosthetic arms sort of already exists on a twenty-something Londoner James young lost an arm and a leg in a train accident in 2012 during his rehab the avid gamer taught himself to use the controller with his one-hand chin and teeth this is why he was chosen by prosthetic sculptor Sophie de oliveira Barada as a lucky recipient of a bespoke sixty thousand pound carbon-fiber limb it's precisely controlled by tiny movements on his back he debuted his arm at the twenty sixteen body hacking con revealing its capabilities that include a flashlight laser LED lights synchronized to his heartbeat and a USB port to charge his phone by the way it also has an integrated screen to check his Instagram likes because why not number three is a bionic eye Canadian filmmaker Rob Spence is known as the Eyeborg because of his prosthetic eye with a wireless video camera embedded in it Spence lost his eye in a shooting accident as a kid and rather than have an empty eye socket he installed a synthetic eyeball with a camera creating the closest thing to literal POV filmmaking hey how are you yeah no I'm just recording this right now don't mind me now the eye is not attached to his brain just yet but it does record what he sees and then transmits it to storage off-site from his body the Eyeborg project is a collaboration between Spence ocularist Phil Bowen who designed it Jr cost agrammatic who designed the camera an electrical engineer Martin Ling who got it all working in a tiny space they now have a real looking eyeball that has all kinds of uses you don't understand as you can see everything real life logging real life logging is what I was thinking of what were you thinking number two is a Bionic penis ah come on you kind of wondered if this was gonna be on the list science fiction meets adult films meets philanthropy in this cyborg tale about Scotsman Mohammed Abad who is the world's first Bionic penis receiver he lost his original manhood as a young boy after a car accident that left him member listen till 2016 at the age of 44 a team of British doctors created a bionic penis using nerves and skin that was grafted from his arm and after 121 surgeries in four years that cost 70,000 pounds they managed to fully attach the prosthetic since the implant countless female strangers have contacted him eager to try out the robo goods hey how are you listen is this Robo penis man okay great listen you don't know me but I have something to ask you and number one is a bionic body if having a 3d printed organs Bionic limb or Robo genitals isn't cyborgs enough for you then here comes the bionic man that could offer a full conversion from human to machine while not technically human he was born in 2013 to British robotics engineer rich Walker and Matthew Godin of shadow robot company who cobbled him together with the greatest hits from labs across the world the bionic man cost 1 million dollars to build and simulates 2/3 of basic human organ functions except the liver stomach and intestines that are still in development and the craziest thing is that scientists believe that we aren't that far away from being able to transfer your entire consciousness into a robot such as this in other words you guessed it this would make you immortal it's kind of cool so that was ten new technologies that will make you a cyborg but if you guys enjoyed this remember to give it a big thumbs up also be sure to subscribe and turn on notifications by clicking the bell beside the subscribe button so that you don't miss a thing because I release new videos all the time thank you guys for watching and I'll see you in the next one bye

1 Star vs. 5 Star Tech Products Test

– Today we see the best and
the worst Amazon has to offer. – Let's talk about that. (funky electronic music) (fire crackles) Good Mythical Morning. – Last month, Jeff Bezos and his wife, formerly the richest couple on the planet announced they would divorce,
and just like his marriage, not all things we buy are
as good as advertised. – Back in November, we tried
putting out product knowledge to the test by trying
to determine what was a five-star product or a one-star product from a wide range of Amazon's products, but today we're doing the same exercise but focusing on the weirdest
tech products we could find. – It's time for, ♪ Twinkle, twinkle Amazon stars ♪ ♪ How I wonder which has one ♪ ♪ And which has more by far ♪ Tech edition. Here's how it's gonna work, we will receive two
different tech products. We define tech product as something that uses electrical technology. – You talking about electronics? – Yeah yeah yeah, one of them
has an overwhelming amount of five-star reviews and
the other product has an excessive amount of one-star reviews.

– After we thoroughly investigate, Stevie is gonna give us a three two one and we're going to place our
hand over what we believe– – Place it.
– To be the one-starrer. Whoever gets the most
right at the end gets to take home a product
of his or her choice. – Really, we can do that? – Yes, let's play. (twinkling music) – First up, we've got a smart water bottle versus a mini donut toaster. – Nice. – Which one is the one-star product? – Okay so this smart water bottle actually seems pretty cool. This thing's $65. And it is hooked up to an
app on the Google Pixel here. – What is it called? – It's called the Hidrate Spark.

Basically watch what
happens as I drink this and then put the cap back on. I don't know if it's
gonna go down as a drink unless I put the cap on. – Okay. You need to get Big Daddy Chugs in here. Or whatever his, what's his name? Bubba Chugs? – Badlands Chugs.
– Badlands Chugs. – Now do this and look. – Nothing.
(crew laughs) Okay. – 16, I'm still 16 years old. – Lookin' like a five-starrer to me. – Hold on I wanna make sure, is there anything I should do, Chase? That's it?
– It worked last time. – It's supposed to work.

– It works sometime? Now I'm just gonna make
donuts in a toaster. – Oh there it goes, there it
goes, look, it just went up. – Oh the technology's responding? – I went from 16% of my
goal to 22% of my goal. It just took a second to react. – Oh gosh.
– Now you're making, who is in the market for mini donuts? – Anyone who likes using
the toaster I guess. – While you're doing that
I'll also let you know– – Is this too much? – You can come over here–
– Probably. – And hit glow. And look. Look Link, look what's
happened to my bottle.

Watch my bottle. – Whoo! So it's also a lava lamp? – It's also fun. I think it might glow
like that as a reward when you finished with your water. – So this is a silicon insert and I gotta make one more. You know what, I'm just gonna do one. That'll be enough, this is gonna be great. I'll throw this in here and
then I'm gonna put it down on number two, and then
I'm gonna make some donuts. – I'm gonna drink some more water. – All right, let's wait a little bit. Ope, here we go!
– Hey! – It's back up and we're back in. Welcome to Good Mythical Morning. I hope there was a mid-roll. – (chuckles) Wow. Probably not. – Okay, so let's see if
we have a, woo that's hot.

– Oh I smell that burnt silicone. – Let's see if we have
a one-star experience or a five-star donut experience. (crew laughs) I don't know it's difficult to tell. And I know what you're
thinking, user error. – User error, definitely there's a lot of user error going on there. – But maybe it tastes great, ooh. Woo, that's hot!
– Ooh that's good. – It tastes good. – Man that's a five-star taste. – It really is a five-star taste. Shew, shew, shew, shew, shew.

– Wow.
– Okay. I'm ready to vote. – Okay.
– Again we're putting our hand over the one-star.
– One-star. – Three, two, one. – It's gotta be this. I mean, this can't be my fault. – You are both correct. – Yes! – People don't like it because
it's a genuine fire hazard that makes bad donuts if it works at all. – Oh.
– Okay I have been validated. But I am gonna keep this and
keep working on my technique. – The taste is good though. I need some water to wash it down. (twinkling music) – Next up we've got an
electric knife versus a fortune telling ball. Which is the one-star product? – Oh Mr. Predicto, huh? Okay, here's a switch, lemme turn that on.

(mysterious chiming) It's working, it's working. – The answer is no. – I haven't asked a question, dude. Chill out. – He's predicting, it's Mr. Predicto. – Can I–
(knife whirs) Juggle this electric knife. – Now is not the right time. (Rhett laughs) – Now is not the right time,
you know what, it's accurate. – That's fair, you
wanna ask him something? – Is Rihanna now or has she
ever been aware that I exist? (crew laughs) – Seems that he's not
aware that you exist. (mysterious chiming) – Yes. (crew laughs) – Rihanna, if you're watching– – She's not, man. – I'll meet you at Fyre Fest Two. – Is Mr. Predicto hiding
a deep, dark secret that would ruin him if
the public found out? (mysterious chiming) – That is a likely outcome.
– Oh.

– Okay and this is just a typical– – Shady. – I mean my dad'll cut a
turkey with one of these and my mom will just watch him and smile. – Do this.
(Rhett chuckles) (knife buzzing) – Oh! – It cuts Jell-O, but we
knew that was gonna happen. – Oh goodness. (knife buzzes) Why are you severing a foot
that's already been severed? Okay, all right I've seen enough. I've seen enough.
– That's gonna take awhile. – I'm ready to vote.
– Okay. – Should we vote? (mysterious chiming) – It is best not to say now. – Oh, it's up to us. – It's ambivalent. All right, aw shut up, okay. – The power of choice.
– All right. – Three, two, one. Psh, no. It didn't cut through the foot! – Yeah but it's not a turkey. – The one-star product
is the electric knife. – Whoa, really?
– Yes! – People didn't like it
because it won't carve turkey.

– Or feet.
– It looks a lot like every one I've ever seen. – Nope, won't carve turkey. (knife whirs) – I might be going back to Mr. Predicto. Gotta get it that secret.
– You should. (twinkling music) – Next up we've got a cat laser pointer versus a LaserComb. Which is the one-star product? – Laser–
– Comb. – Laser pointer. This matches my shirt, look at that. I'll use it on my hair but
first, let's try this thing out. – So you know how the cats like
to follow the little laser. – Yeah.
– But you get tired– – Really smart, they're great animals.

– Oh.
– Wouldn't you say? – Look at this. – It's laser caressing your nipple. (crew laughs) – It actually feels like
it's scratching an itch. – There we go.
– Oh get the other one. Get the other nipple. Oh. – Imagine a cat trying to, is that how you pinch cats, man? So I mean, if you got a cat, have the decency to play
with it with a laser. I mean don't do an automated. – This is perfect, I think you should let the robots raise the cat. I definitely believe in this technology. – Okay now the LaserComb
Ultima 12 is a hair growth laser light device. I love this guy's posture
when combing his hair. – Yeah you gotta lean back, man. – I'm gonna try to match
that so help me out.

– Okay. – So I'm gonna turn this
thing on and then I'm gonna, oh yeah. Scanning myself for– – Don't put it on your eyes. Don't go through your, oh. – I did a little bit but okay here we go. Well he did this. Do I look like him? – What is the science behind this? – I'm frying my scalp to grow more hair. – You have to do it for eight minutes three times a week. – Feels nice. – Why can't you do it for
four minutes six times a week? – What's the beeping?
– Or two minutes 12 times a week.
– It seems to be working, I mean look. (Rhett chuckles) – Wow it made you look
a lot like this guy. Is that the intended effect? Now keep in mind that thing costs $395. – What? – (chuckles) Yes. – Hold on, oh. – Quit pointing it in
your freakin' eyes, man! There's one rule with the LaserComb.

– Hi my name's Link. I paid $400 to blind
myself on the internet. – Okay, all right I feel like– – I don't wanna comb too much 'cause we gotta return this sucker. Let me recharge it. Yeah, this is tough. – I believe there's some
psychology behind this one and that's why I feel like
I know what I'm voting for. – You ready to vote? – Yes. – Three, two, one. – Yeah, if people spend $400 on something, they convince themselves
that it's working. – The one-star. – I don't think people who spend that much on stuff write reviews.

– One-star goes to the LaserComb. – Oh dang it, really? – People hated it because it's a scam that preys on insecure
people whose hair loss is most often genetic and irreversible. – You know what, that's
kind of a good point. – Well I figured it didn't work but people like to talk themselves
into all kinds of things. – And it gives you a headache
too when you look at it. (twinkling music) – And last but not least we've
got a smartphone hologram versus a paranormal blacklight. Which is the one-star product? – Paranormal blacklight? – Okay so all this
product is is this thing.

It's not a smartphone.
– Phone not included. – So let's dim the lights a little bit so you can see how this works. There are like hologram videos on YouTube. You start it and then
you place it right there and you look in there–
– It's a butterfly. – And you see butterfly.
– Can you see that? There's a freakin' butterfly. – And then it'll turn into something else. – Flying.
– In a second here. 'Cause you can make
all kinds of holograms. It doesn't have to be a butterfly. – Make Tupac. – It can also be a hummingbird! What? – Look at that.
– Look he flew away. – No he's up there. Can you see it? We want it there. What, now what?
– A fish. – Oh it is a fish. – Don't you feel like you're in Star Wars? – No. – I actually think this is pretty cool 'cause it's just this
thing, $11, hours of fun.

– Mine's $12, it is the VisiGHOST for paranormal research
on ghost (mumbles). So this finds evidence
of paranormal activity– – Sure it is.
– But I will point out, the only thing it says on it is my deal. – Oh, well what's your deal? I find ghosts, man, that's my deal. – Okay so I got some
things I wanna test it on. First of all, Baby Secret. So you take her and then
hold her right there and let's dim the lights for
the blacklight technology to take effect. – And I'm gonna pull her
string as you shine her light. – Will you tell me a story? – What? – Will you tell me a story? – Will you tell me a story? – No, shut up. All right stop. Oh, I saw a little–
– You see anything? – Nothing.
– No evidence? Not even a stain of Satan? (chuckles) – If a blacklight found
a stain on this doll, that would be weird for
a non-paranormal reason.

– I think it's kinda weird
that a baby doll this old doesn't have any stains on it. – (chuckles) Okay, let's get the lights. Nothing there but now try this. – My wife's favorite painting. – Creepy painting that's
been hanging around here. All right hit the lights again. I'm gonna inspect it. (dark music)
(Link yells) – Oh, whoa, whoa, whoa, whoa, whoa, whoa. – Look at that, it appears–
– Oh no, what? – That the Mythical Crew– – We have got a, holy moly! – Hell is real.
– Oh gosh, and we've got, oh, she even has, is that a goatee or a forked tongue? Oh.

– Oh, redrum. (Rhett laughs) – It works, man! This blacklight works
just like a blacklight. – He is real! All right–
– I mean would you pay 12 bucks just for a blacklight flashlight? That's the question. – Well you gotta factor in
the cost of the hidden ink. – Okay here we go. – Ready, three, two, one. – It's gotta be this one,
right, but I'm losing, so I'm gonna go here
just to see if I can tie. – There's no way people are
picking up paranoia with this. – The one-star product is
the smartphone hologram. – It worked good! What's the complaint? – Yeah people complained because
it's small and overpriced and possibly only for babies. – It's only $10.50. – I ain't a baby and I had fun. I'm gonna be doing this for a long time because I guess since
we tied we each get one.

I'm taking this one, man. Oh I know what I want
and I got it right here. Mr. Predicto, are we gonna be friends? (mysterious chiming) – No. (Rhett laughs loudly) – Thank you for liking,
commenting and subscribing. – You know what time it is. – Hi I'm Ricardo from Mexico City and I'm on the Technological Museum. And it's time to spin
the Wheel of Mythicality. – Thank you Ricardo. Make sure you click the
top link to watch us test Adriana Lima's favorite
Amazon product with Christine in Good Mythical More. – Ooh it's a brain-reading device. And to find out where the Wheel
of Mythicality's gonna land. Rhett and Link stickers
for iMessage includes a mix of classic catch-phrases and reactions that you can share with your friends. Available now in the Apple App Store..

Learning Technologies France 2019 – a 2 minute introduction

What is digital learning? Digital learning combines all the online training that can replace or enhance classroom learning. It allows for learning to be fun, engaging, and more efficient. It can reduce the cost of training by up to 75%… While offering multiple possibilities such as virtual reality, adventures, quizzes… Throughout Europe, France is experiencing the strongest growth
within Digital Learning. Would you also like to set up digital learning
in your company? But you don't always understand the difference between blended, mobile or adaptive learning… You don't know who to talk to about your training
and HR needs.

Learning Technologies France will answer all
your questions. We will host more than 150 French and international exhibitors. During two days, on the 30th and 31st of January, you will meet experts, talk with the industry leaders, network with your peers and gather great insight. We are building a start-up village where you
will discover the use of artificial intelligence, Memory Anchoring® and neurosciences, interactive video, 3D simulation and virtual worlds. You will hear from all the digital learning experts and see live demos during interactives sessions between speakers and audience. You will attend sessions where major companies
share their feedback on making the transition. We are the biggest event dedicated to
digital learning in France. We welcome more than 5000 visitors. The 2019 edition will take place on
30th and 31st of January in Paris, Porte de Versailles. Registration is free. Don't miss out!.

D2Service Project: Design of 2 Technologies and Applications to Service

Every household needs heat and electricity. Often, the electricity comes directly from the power grid, and the heat is generated locally by burning natural gas coming from the gas grid. With a micro combined heat and power plant, both electricity and heat can be generated locally. By this, the heat that is usually a waste product when generating electricity can be used for heating the house and producing warm water. Fuel cell-based micro CHP units are a modern and elegant technology that on-site can produce electricity and heat quietly, cleanly and with a high efficiency. Fuel cell technology in itself is not new, but fuel cell-based micro CHP systems are just emerging.

In order to help spreading this efficient technology, several experienced partners from different European countries work together on the Design 2 Service project to simplify the installation and service tasks of fuel cell-based micro CHP systems. The goal is that soon these systems can be installed and serviced by the same technicians that today are installing and servicing your heating system boiler and electrical devices. Sith the purpose of making installation and maintenance easier, the chassis and the components are redesigned so they can be exchanged more easily using standard connections and tools.

The durability of some key components, for example new catalysts and filter materials for the desulphurisation and water treatment units are investigated, so they have to be exchanged less often. Methods for monitoring systems remotely and diagnosing faults from measured data automatically are developed and tested. These methods reduce or avoid travel costs for service technicians. To enable technicians that have no or only little previous knowledge, guidelines for easily understandable service manuals are developed. The improvements that are elaborated in the project are tested in a field trial, where several units are deployed in real-life environments. The performance is monitored and information and statistics concerning their serviceability is gathered..

10 Surprising Technologies People Had in the Past

Today, we like to think of ourselves as at
the highest point ever in human technological advancement, and certainly on some levels
we seem to have done better than in the past — such as transportation methods like airplanes.
However, many technologies that today we imagine those in the past simply had to live without
are not as modern as we thought. In fact, many technologies used in the past were quite
effective, they just seem primitive to us today, because they were designed to fulfill
their function without displaying things on a screen, or using electricity. Modern man
is convinced that something isn’t technology advanced sufficiently if it doesn’t have
features of that kind. 10. The “Baghdad Battery” Found In The
Ruins Of Ancient Iraq The “Baghdad Battery” was found in the
ruins of what was once Ancient Iraq, and is hotly disputed in the world of archeology.
The discovery was a ceramic vessel with a copper tube and an iron rod.

Despite the fact
that independent experts like the Mythbusters have proven that with an electrolytic solution,
it would become a battery, some archeologists still stubbornly argue that it must have just
held scrolls or something, probably because accepting that there is a battery lying around
would destroy a lot of conceptions they have about the history of the area. Now, if it were a battery, the bigger question
is what it was used for. It has been suggested it was used for electroplating gold to other
metals, but all experts who have looked at the metalwork believe that simple fire gilding
was actually used. Due to the complete lack of any kind of evidence of what it could have
been used for, it has been speculated that it was meant for some kind of electrotherapy
or other medical application. Unfortunately, it’s hard to know if we will ever get any
answers, as we have discovered nothing written down on the matter. While some archeologists
are skeptical of discoveries like this, due to lack of physical evidence of widespread
use of electricity, the fact of the matter is that the basics of making electricity work
are metals, and these are one of the first things looted when society breaks down — there
simply may not be much intact physical evidence that is extant.

9. Several Ancient Cultures Had Forms Of Air
Conditioning Today we like to think of ourselves at the
pinnacle of modern technology, and one of our greatest technological feats is air conditioning,
an invention so modern, and arguably bad for the environment, that some probably wonder
if it should even be a thing. However, many of us could no longer live without it. While
some of us shake our heads silently and wonder about the time when there was no air conditioning,
pondering how the people of old could have survived without it, the truth is that many
of them had their own methods that actually worked quite well. The Ancient Romans forced water from the famous
aqueduct system through pipes in their homes, and kept the house cool and insulated all
year round. Many structures in the hottest parts of the Middle East have long used spiral
shapes that create a cooling wind effect, and many cultures have taken advantage of
the coolness of going underground, and created houses, or even whole cities that are partially
underground, in order to efficiently cool themselves.

There are also surprising strategies
that many people do not think of. It may seem strange to see people in the desert wearing
full robes, and it may appear they are just used to the heat, but there is good reason
for it. These clothes have been scientifically shown to create a cooling from effect the
way they drape and flow around the body. Taking off your shirt actually just exposes you directly
to the heat, and makes you sweat out the moisture in your body faster. 8. Hot Air Balloons Go Back To When They Were
Used For Messaging In Ancient China Today, hot air balloons still have their enthusiasts,
and are a novel and horrifying way to float across the sky, largely at the mercy of forces
beyond your control. Now, this isn’t to say that they are simply floating death machines
— if you have proper training, experience and understand weather conditions, it can
be safe and fun.

The truth is that hot air balloon accidents are very rare; however,
long before they were experimented with as a means of attempting to traverse the entire
globe, they were used for sending messages. Back in the early days of Ancient China, they
used small hot air balloons meant not for carrying people or cargo, but for sending
messages. By sending mini hot air balloons into the sky, the flaming “sky lanterns”
would signify to others that help was needed or be understand as a military command of
some kind or another. Like with the invention of gunpowder, it had started off mostly as
a novelty, then it saw more utilitarian use, and then it became another terrifying part
of the arsenal of war. If technology of most kinds were to ever be unavailable, it is hard
to argue with the effectiveness of this method. It would be easy to float many lanterns to
a great height, and especially at night, they would be seen for a very long distance. 7. People Exploited The Denseness Of Air To
Create Primitive “Refrigerators” Refrigerators, and the accompanying freezer,
are considered by most to be one of the most modern inventions available, but people have
long desired to keep their food from spoiling and have gotten very creative over the years.
While today we use lots of electricity, which is usually backed by things like coal, and
still require chemicals like freon that are very bad for the environment, back in the
day, methods were a lot simpler.

The Romans would create underground freezers by shipping
in snow from the mountains, packing it in the ground, and then packing layers of dirt
on top to insulate the snow around it. Then in the underground chamber they created, they
could store food. For those who don’t have access to methods
quite this complicated, most people simply made use of the fact that cold air is much
denser than hot air. Or as the saying goes, “hot air rises and cold air falls.” This
means that the lower underground you are, and the better you know how to insulate, the
colder you can consistently keep an area.

Most people were unable to maintain consistent
freezer temperatures, depending on the region of the world, but most could at least manage
something close to a consistent refrigerator temperature. 6. Guns Have Been Used In Combat Much Farther
Back Than Most People Realize Guns are easily considered the deadliest weapons
today — mass killings are performed by guns nearly every time, and it is the constant
subject of public debate as to whether we should ban or restrict guns, and the constant
drive of military forces around the world to make their guns stronger.

In most people’s
eyes, guns not only saw most of their development within the last couple hundred years or so,
but they really only saw heavy use at all from that time period forward. However, the fact is that guns were being
used, and even used heavily in combat to great effect, long before people were struggling
about with muskets and lining up on the battlefield. There is European Medieval artwork depicting
soldiers wielding guns, although the Europeans were not known to use them often. On the other
hand, the Japanese during their own medieval period, from the mid 1500s through 1600s,
built a lot of guns, used them heavily in combat, and figured them into their military
strategies. Now, guns are certainly much more powerful than they were once, but they have
been the weapon of favor in at least one culture, fallen out of favor, and then come back into
favor again.

Ironically, in a way, the Japanese have once again pivoted back to not being
in favor of the gun, as they have no real standing military and guns are heavily banned
in the country. 5. Devices Like The Antikythera Mechanism
Allowed For Incredible Mathematical Analysis Today, we like to think of our understanding
of mathematics as far beyond what ancient man could do, but we are not nearly as far
ahead as we would like to think. A device called the antikythera mechanism — due to
it being found in wreckage off the coast of a Greek island called Antikythera — was
discovered in the early 1900s and changed the way that many people look at the ancient
world. The device is made from 37 different mesh and metal gears, and its workings are
insanely complex. It was designed as an analog computer that
could predict the movements of the stars, the irregular phases of the moon, and other
astronomical calculations decades in advance with incredible accuracy. Historians who have
examined it believe the device was probably designed by a team of ancient Greek scientists,
back somewhere in the general range of about 100-200 BC. Now, some people may still consider
this pretty primitive compared to what we have today, but apart from the fact that it
does not use electricity, and doesn’t have a screen to show you results, it could do
almost everything we could do in terms of future star movement predictions, which requires
a lot of complicated math and analysis.

Screens are a convenience, but they are not the only
way to output data, and are best for entertainment more than anything else. 4. The Telegraph Was Basically The Texting
And Internet Of The Olden Days The telegraph recently went fully defunct
a few years ago, and many people were saddened by the end of an old timey era of communication.
However, while the telegraph was eventually chosen in favor of other technologies, it
was hardly primitive, and allowed for a widespread level of communication that most people tend
to think we only have today.

The telegraph was cheap, easy to use, and allowed people
to get quick messages across without the commitment of a phone call. It was basically a combination
of instant messenger and text of today, and people used it that way like crazy. The telegraph had its own version of text
speak, which was very similar to ours today — and very important for them, as telegrams
were charged by the character. And, evidence shows that people shared their day’s equivalent
of memes over the telegram on a regular basis. While the telegraph did slowly lose popularity
to other technologies that came out in the ensuing years, it was capable of connecting
people in a way that most only attribute to the internet’s abilities today, and it did
it without the incredible layers of technology that most communication requires today.

3. Ancient Cultures Had Surprisingly Sophisticated
GPS Equipment Today, we take for granted our ability to
use GPS technology. We say something to our smartphone, and the next thing we know we
have found our way to the nearest Denny’s or, if we are really unlucky, right into a
pond, or a closed access road. The GPS requires no input at all from us beyond telling it
where we want to go, and following directions. Now, ancient cultures certainly didn’t have
anything quite like this, but they did have surprisingly sophisticated devices for navigating
around, and it made them much better navigators than most of us are today. Back in the day, without global positioning
satellites to rely on, they had to understand the positions of the stars. However, just
knowing all of the stars and their positioning and understanding ocean currents and everything
else wasn’t quite enough. Sometimes you needed tools. The sextant was a crucial device
that was invented by John Hadley, although there is some reason to believe he may have
been influenced by past writings of Isaac Newton, who was deceased at the time of the

Regardless, this device helped measure the angle between the horizon and
the stars, which meant someone with proper astronomical knowledge could use this to navigate
extremely effectively. Another useful invention was the Bygrave Position-Line
Slide Rule, a device cooked up much more recently after World War I by a Captain L. C. Bygrave,
and was useful for quickly putting together proper navigational calculations on the fly.
Well before computers, we were able to navigate just fine, with just a little bit of our own
brain power added into our analog technology to help us along the way. 2. The Use Of Condoms And Pregnancy Tests
Goes Back A Very Long Way Today we tend to think that now we finally
have birth control, proper pregnancy tests, and are able to have a certain control and
knowledge of our destiny that people of the past simply did not.

Women can pee on a stick
and in a short time, know if they are actually pregnant or not like they hoped — or feared.
Birth control is also much more effective, as there are pills women can can take on a
regular basis to avoid pregnancy, and condoms are cheap and plentiful all over the place. However, long in the past, people actually
had far more access to these technologies and these conveniences than people think.
Pregnancy testing goes back a long time, as we’ve covered before. The interesting thing
is that essentially every single culture was actually looking in the right direction, and
most of their methods were either extremely accurate, or at least really close.

All of
the methods you will see offered by ancient cultures involved analyzing the urine in some
form or another to see if it was different from the urine of a woman who was not pregnant. In terms of condoms, full condoms have been
found in the middle ages in Europe, made from animal bits, and in China and Japan, glans
condoms that only covered the head of the penis were actually quite popular among the
elite who could afford them. In many ways, history repeats itself, as inventions like
this have, in some respects, gone in and out of popularity over time. 1. Kevlar Is A Rediscovery Of A Very Old Means
Of Combat Protection We like to think that people tried leather
and metal body armor, and after a time, realized that it just wasn’t that effective. Eventually,
people came to their senses, and now we have the recently invented Kevlar, which provides
far greater protection than ever in the past. However, the truth is that Kevlar is not some
kind of special technological advancement. It is basically just lots of fibers sewed
in layers very tightly together, providing great resistance to any bullets or other shrapnel
that may try to get through.

This technology is actually something that can be replicated
to a great degree without fancy machinery, and appears in countless pieces of literature
when it comes to battles in the ancient world. The Ancient Greeks were said to have made
use of it, among others, and found it to often be a better form of protection against arrows
than many other methods. Historians at the University of Wisconsin Green Bay have been
studying the practical effects, and found that it should have theoretically worked as
well as the historical records suggest.

The historians have been attempting to replicate
a specific type of cloth armor worn by Alexander the Great and his men, called the linothorax
— made by compressing together many layers of fabric much like Kevlar — which give
them an edge that allowed him to almost conquer the world long ago. Historians believe that
we see little evidence of it in the historical record, and may never be able to truly and
properly replicate the linothorax, because of its unique design.

Since it is made out
of cloth fibers, it degrades very easily over time compared to metal or treated leather,
and so there may simply not be any artifacts to find..


Hello everyone. In this part of the new technologies, I'm going to present the Osmo mobile 2 smartphone stabilizer from DJI. The Osmo mobile 2 is a handle on which will settle your Android smartphone or Iphone stabilizer. Thanks to this stabilizer, your movements will be stable and fluid and you will be able to say goodbye to jerky videos. First of all, we will start by setting up the smartphone in this case the Samsung Galaxy S8. Then we will proceed to the basic setting of the Osmo mobile 2. We have the charging cable but be careful the mains plug is not supplied, there is only one USB output. Charging can therefore be done via your smartphone charger or your computer. This is the Osmo mobile 2. First, install the DJI GO app by downloading it from the App Store or Google Play on your smartphone. Mount and balance your smartphone horizontally on the Osmo mobile 2. Place the smartphone in the stand while pulling on the stand. Adjust the position of the smartphone holder. The tilt axis is balanced if the smartphone remains in position when released.

The roll axis is balanced if the smartphone stays level when it is released. If the roll axis tilts to the left, pull the arm out until the roll axis is level. Connect to the DJI GO app by activating Bluetooth on your smartphone. Switch on the Osmo mobile 2 by pressing and holding the M button for a few seconds. The indicator lights up. Launch the DJI GO application and follow the instructions to connect to the Osmo mobile 2. I now propose to come for a ride with me to Avignon to make a life-size test.

Are you ready ? Here we are in Avignon to start the series of tests. To realize a manual lapse time, In the DJI GO app, select the "video mode". Tap the tab below and choose "M. Timelaps". Then set a start point using the joystick and then press the "+". Set an end point in the same way. Press "start" or the red button on the Osmo mobile 2. You can make up to 5 different positions. Here is an example of a result at the Pont d'Avignon and the Palais des Papes. For a time lapse, Select the "video mode" again. Tap the tab below and choose "time lapse". Choose the interval speed and duration. Press "start" or the red button on the Osmo mobile 2 and hold the stabilizer upright.

For best results, a tripod is recommended. I tested this feature at Pont d'Avignon. For the hyperlapse, Select the "video mode". Tap the tab below and choose "hyperlaps". The following parameters are the same as the time lapse. For the panorama, Select the "photo mode". Tap the tab below and choose "PANO". Choose the desired panorama size. Launch the camera by pressing either the white button on the smartphone or the red button on the Osmo mobile 2. I hope this video has been helpful for you to use Osmo mobile 2. I introduced you to the basic features, but there are still a lot of features in free and automatic mode test. Feel free to share your experiences in the comments or the Facebook page of Ana-Giulia's workshops.

See you soon..