BTEC Tech Award in Health and Social Care: Component 2

component2 is all about health and social care services and values giving students a chance to really get to know how the sector works and the care values that at the very heart of it as with component 1 is made up of two learning aims which are both internally assessed during learning aim a students will learn the different types of services across both health and social care and how they meet user needs they'll also look into the barriers which can prevent people from accessing the services that they need such as staff shortages or poor transport links to demonstrate their learning students might carry out a review of the health and social care services in their local area looking at what improvements could be made learning aim B focuses on care values students will develop an understanding of what the different care values are such as preserving dignity or duty of care they'll then learn how to apply them in real-life situations and reflect on their own application of these values to demonstrate their learning you'll give students one or more situations which can be simulated or based on real-life they'll need to apply the care values they've learned to the situation's and then review their performance and respond to feedback [Music] you

As found on YouTube

Content Marketing vs Copywriting: The #1 Strategy To Massively Boost Online Sales

Content marketing and copywriting. They are two vastly different
skills and services, right? Well, not if you're doing it right. In this video, I'm gonna
break down the barriers between content marketing and copywriting. And most importantly,
I'll reveal the number one most valuable piece of content marketing that every single business needs to be putting out regularly, and every single copywriter needs to be offering as a
service to their clients. So stay tuned. (upbeat music) Hey, Posse. What's up? It's Alex coming at you this week with another marketing tutorial to help you slay the copywriting
game, land more clients, boost your revenue, and
drive more online sales. If you're new to the crew,
welcome to my channel. I am here to help you master
the ABC's of marketing, copywriting, freelancing,
and social media.

So if that is your cup of tea, be sure to subscribe below and don't forget to hit
that bell to be notified when my next tutorial goes live. Now, before we dive in to the #1 most insanely valuable
piece of content marketing that you absolutely must be
doing as a business owner or a copywriter, let's first talk about what exactly content marketing and copywriting are, and how they differ.

So content marketing is the strategy of putting out valuable,
shareable, and free content to your audience on a
consistent and regular basis. Now, this can include a
whole variety of things, like blog posts, social media posts, podcasts, YouTube videos
like this one, newsletters, and the list goes on and on. Copywriting on the other
hand can really be thought of as the art of writing
words with the sole purpose of getting a conversion. So typical forms of copywriting include sales pages, ads,
sales emails, landing pages, VSLs, webinar scripts, and on and on. So the overarching goal
of content marketing is to put out crazy good value in order to build your brand
awareness, trust, and reach. Copywriting is what you rely on when it comes to actually
turning that audience into paying customers. Make sense? So, on the surface, yes, these are two different
skills and services, but they absolutely should
be done together in parallel to create a very effective and
powerful marketing campaign. And listen up because
this is especially true when it comes to the inbox.

Yes, I am talking about your emails. Now, while the best email strategy involves sending both sales
emails and content emails, they should not be treated as completely separate from one another. And that is because great content emails build trust and rapport
with your audience. That way, when you do
wanna sell them something via a sales email, they're 1000% more likely
to say, "Hell yes!" which is why all of your emails really should be written by a copywriter who knows how to use content
marketing, storytelling, and sales strategies to create
powerful inbox messaging that both connects and converts.

So with that, here's my very first tip. Do not, do not just email your list during launches and promotions. I know that's what everyone wants to do. And let's be honest, that's
where the majority of us tend to focus our time as
business owners and copywriters because launches and
promos are the moneymakers. But the fact is if the only
time you email your list is when you're selling something, then you're really not taking the time to build up that foundation
of trust with your audience, and they're not very
likely to buy from you. Listen, consumers today are smart. And honestly, they are skeptical AF that you're a legit brand
who actually has a product that will help them solve their problems. And it's for damn good reason. I mean, we literally live
immersed in an online world that shows us thousands,
thousands of targeted ads a day, completely oversaturated
with hypey claims, douchey sales tactics, and brands that shove "buy,
buy, buy" down our throats 24/7. Aah! It's no wonder that it's become so hard to gain a loyal following and fan base that keep coming back
again, and again, and again.

Consumers have seen the
same sales tactics so often that their eyes just glaze over anytime they see any of that BS online, because nowadays consumers
want something different. They want a real connection. They wanna feel valued and seen. And if your audience doesn't
feel connected to your brand, they will not buy from you, period. And that is why all your
emails are important, not just the sales emails
that make you money, and nurturing your audience through consistent high
value content emails is arguably the most important
piece of content marketing that you can be putting out as a business.

It is literally your
secret sauce to selling without really selling at all. Okay, so content emails are vital to the success of any business, but what exactly is a good
content email marketing strategy? Well, the content and consistency of your emails will vary massively depending on what your brand
or business actually does. So here is my next tip. Make your content emails
educational, inspirational, entertaining, or personal. You wanna write them informally, just like you're emailing
back and forth with a friend. You wanna include tons of
storytelling and personalization to make your audience feel
more connected to you.

You wanna provide enough education to make your audience trust
in your knowledge and skills, and you wanna do it all
without asking your audience for a single thing. That's right, no strings attached. Just read my awesome email. Now, I teach all about my methodologies and the psychology of writing effective conversational emails that'll turn signups into sales inside my five-day email marketing
challenge, Own The Inbox, and you can learn more about
that at the end of this video. But first, I am sure
you're probably wondering how often you need to be
sending these content emails. Is it once a week, once a
month, every single day, right? Well, once again, it totally varies, depending on you and your brand.

Personally, I email my
list about once a week, and that works great for me. And typically, this is an
informal personal type of email introducing my newest YouTube video. But even when I don't publish
a YouTube video that week, I still make it a point to email my list. This keeps me fresh in
their minds and their inbox at all times, and really helps to build that feeling of belonging and community
because I'm being consistent. That way, whenever I do run a
product launch or a promotion, my list sort of tolerate it, for a lack of better terminology, because they know once my launch is over, I will go back to emailing
them on a consistent schedule where I'm strictly delivering free value and not trying to sell them anything. Now, I am not saying that you need to email your list once a week, nor am I saying you can't sell more often, but you gotta find that sweet spot balance between value and sales, right? Giving and asking.

Once a week works great for me, but I also know people who email their list every single day, and that works great for them. And hey, I still read their emails. The key here is not to overthink
the frequency, and instead, and this is the most
important tip of them all, pick a schedule that works
for you and stick with it, because remember, people want consistency.

Consistency builds trust, and trust is what sells
your products and services. Now, if you wanna learn exactly how to write emails that sell, make sure to check out my
email marketing program, Own The Inbox. In it, you'll learn the
marketing psychology that gets people to open,
click, and read your emails, along with my coveted Posse Playbook of 12 emails that create authority, build anticipation, and
turn signups into sales, so that you can write
an engaging, memorable, and high converting
email marketing campaign in just five days. You can find that link in
the description box below. I hope to see you there. Until next time, I'm Alex. Ciao for now. Alright, guys, if you enjoyed that video, make sure to check out the
next one from me right here. And you can click right
here to get a free gift. What types of emails should you
absolutely know how to write as a copywriter or online business owner? Do all emails follow the
same flow and format? How do you build relationships,
create engagement, and get conversions with email marketing? You got questions.

I got answers. Keep watching..

As found on YouTube

Celebs Who Have Been Open About Living With Mental Health Conditions

Mental health is something that concerns all
of us. While nobody has a responsibility to reveal
their mental health diagnosis, in their own way, these stars are helping break the stigma
and paint a more accurate picture of what it's really like to live with an invisible
diagnosis. Kristen Bell is incredibly open about her
experience with depression and anxiety. Describing her anxiety, Bell told Self, "It's hard to put into words, honestly, and
it feels different at different times. When my anxiety is high, it feels like an
absolute inability to make decisions. Like, I would rather not do something than
decide what to do. And it's almost paralyzing." Bell has an equally visual explanation for
her experience of depression, saying, "Depression is different. My version of it feels very restricted, like…
if you're trying to put on a latex glove that's way too small for your hand.

Also, it sort of coincides with this feeling
of not being excited about anything." The actress goes on to explain that it's actually
her husband, Dax Shepard, who encouraged her to speak publicly about her mental health
– something she had previously kept private. In an interview with Off Camera with Sam Jones,
Shepard confirmed this, explaining how he and Bell have allowed each other to grow as
individuals. Shepard said, "Without me, she's never on your show admitting
she has depression. She's never doing that. That's like something she got from me." With her husband's help, Bell has become an
outspoken advocate for mental health over the years.

She told Time in 2016, "Mental health check-ins should be as routine
as going to the doctor or the dentist." Camila Cabello knows all too well how different
people's lives can look on Instagram compared to their actual reality. In 2020, the singer and now actress got vulnerable
in an essay for WSJ Magazine, explaining that, even though her Instagram pictures made her
look like she was doing great, her mental health painted a different picture.

She wrote, ​​"[Here’s pictures that don’t exist
from last year]: me crying in the car talking to my mom about how much anxiety and how many
symptoms of OCD I was experiencing. Me experiencing what felt like constant, unwavering,
relentless anxiety that made day-to-day life painfully hard." Cabello admitted that she felt shame about
her struggles, and that it took a long time for her to be able to share those with the
world. She said, "In order to heal it, I had to talk about
it." Since then, she has used a combination of
techniques, including therapy and a mindfulness practice, to manage her symptoms, and she
feels a lot better.

On her journey, Cabello has learned to take
care of herself. Posting on Instagram in 2021, she wrote, "I started seeing how after resting during
that period, cultivating new hobbies, prioritizing my mental health, my friendships and relationships,
making time for exercise, and also enjoying being lazy again, I started to naturally feel
inspired, passionate, and way more creative." Just months before her death in December of
2016, Carrie Fisher started an advice column for The Guardian. Through this column, she was open about her
own mental health while helping readers navigate theirs. Fisher famously suffered from bipolar disorder,
having been diagnosed at 24.

One person with the same diagnosis wrote in, "Have you found a way to feel at peace when
even your brain seesaws constantly?" Fisher's answer was beautiful. She wrote, "We have been given a challenging illness,
and there is no other option than to meet those challenges. Think of it as an opportunity to be heroic
— not 'I survived living in Mosul during an attack' heroic, but an emotional survival. An opportunity to be a good example to others
who might share our disorder." After her death, Fisher was branded a "mental
health hero" by USA Today. Throughout her life, she took on commitments
that few other celebrities would agree to, like a cover shoot for a new magazine about
bipolar disorder. The magazine's founder told USA Today, "Carrie Fisher on the cover got us advertising
we never would have gotten otherwise. I don't know what we would have done without
her." Her bravery didn't make Fisher's experience
with bipolar disorder any less painful.

Fisher once told Diane Sawyer, "You can't stop. It's very painful. It's raw. You know, it's rough […] when you're not
busy talking and trying to drown it out." Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson has endured some
difficult times. Johnson once said, referring to episodes of
depression, "I've battled that beast more than once." Years ago, he witnessed his mother's suicide
attempt and became too injured to play football professionally, so when a girlfriend ended
it with him, on top of that, it was just too much to bear. He told Express, "That was my absolute worst time." That interview got people talking, and The
Rock was moved by the conversations it started. He told BBC News, "It was really overwhelming and thousands
of people responded.

It all started when I helped a man [a fan
who was fighting his own battle with depression]. I said, 'Hey, you're not alone, we all go
through it.' One of the most important things that I know
helped me with the multiple times that I had gone through my own episodes of depression,
was making sure that I was talking to people." Addressing his comments on Twitter, he wrote,
quote "Depression never discriminates." His hope was that his followers would follow
his example and talk about their own struggles. He continued, "Took me a long time to realize it but the
key is to not be afraid to open up. Especially us dudes have a tendency to keep
it in. You're not alone." Johnson continues to speak up about mental
health, for example, as part of an episode of Young Rock. "We don't have to have the answers, we just
gotta pull people in and not be afraid to share our emotions and know we're not alone." Miley Cyrus is known for sharing much of her
personal life — good and bad — with fans.

One of her more difficult experiences has
been living with depression, which she spoke about in a 2014 cover story for Elle. She told the magazine, "I went through a time where I was really
depressed. Like, I locked myself in my room and my dad
had to break my door down." Cyrus went on to explain that fame is a double-edged
sword when it comes to opening up about mental health, because, on the one hand, it gives
her a platform to help others, but, on the other, people might see her as, quote, "being
ungrateful" for the privileges she has. She said, "There's not much that I'm closed off about,
and the universe gave me all that so I could help people feel like they don't have to be
something they're not or feel like they have to fake happy.

There's nothing worse than being fake happy." The singer and actress has also never hidden
the fact that she has, at times, turned to alcohol and drugs, but told Variety in June
2020 that she was, quote, "sober sober" and had sought professional help. She said, "By understanding the past, we understand
the present and the future much more clearly. I think therapy is great." Cyrus later told Rolling Stone that she briefly
broke her sobriety during the pandemic, although many of us can relate — let’s be honest. Mariah Carey spoke about her bipolar disorder
diagnosis in an interview with People in 2018, after years of keeping it private. She said, "Until recently I lived in denial and isolation
and in constant fear someone would expose me. It was too heavy a burden to carry and I simply
couldn't do that anymore. I sought and received treatment, I put positive
people around me and I got back to doing what I love — writing songs and making music." She told the magazine she was pursuing therapy
and taking medication to help her manage her mental health.

Carey told People that she was diagnosed in
2001, which is when news of her struggles with mental health first broke. At the time, she had to cancel a series of
shows and go to the hospital. A spokesperson for the singer told the Associated
Press at the time, "She has suffered an emotional and physical
breakdown […] she is under psychiatric care." The spokesperson also explained why Carey
had sustained injuries, "She did break some dishes and glasses, and
she may have stepped on them." Writing for BuzzFeed News, journalist Alessa
Dominguez pointed out that when Carey was first diagnosed, the public's opinion of mental
ill health was a far cry from what it's like today.

And so it makes sense that she didn't feel
comfortable speaking out about it at the time: Her words would likely have been twisted,
or dismissed. Before Lady Gaga started working on her 2020
album "Chromatica," she experienced a dark period. She told People, "I used to wake up in the morning, and I would
realize I was 'Lady Gaga. And then I became very depressed and sad,
and I didn't want to be myself. I felt threatened by the things my career
brought into my life and the pace of my life." She didn't feel well for a while, but eventually
what she referred to as her "catatonic state" lifted.

She said, "And then I finally, slowly started to make
music and tell my story through my record." Mental health is an important issue to Lady
Gaga, who has previously partnered with mental health initiatives, including Mental Health
First Aid and Mental Health America — not to mention her own Born This Way Foundation,
which also aims to improve mental well-being. In 2018, she co-wrote an essay for The Guardian,
in which she called for people to be more open about their mental health and for support
services to be considerably improved to prevent disastrous outcomes. Gaga wrote alongside Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
of the World Health Organization, "Instead of treating those facing mental health
conditions with the compassion we would offer to someone with a physical injury or illness,
we ostracize, blame, and condemn. In too many places support services are non-existent
and those with treatable conditions are criminalized […] cut off from the rest of society without
hope." Taylor Swift is often viewed as one of America's
sweethearts, but the singer has had a difficult price to pay for her public image — including
the abundance of nasty comments she has received over the years.

In the Netflix documentary Miss Americana,
Swift spoke about her experience with an eating disorder. She said, "I tend to get triggered by something, whether
it's a picture of me where I feel […] like I looked like my tummy was too big or, like,
someone said that I looked pregnant or something, and that'll just trigger me to just […] starve
a little bit, just stop eating." She explained that, since she started eating
more, things had improved for her. She later spoke with Variety about the decision
to share this difficult experience with the world. She told the outlet, "All I know is my own experience. And my relationship with food was exactly
the same psychology that I applied to everything else in my life: If I was given a pat on the
head, I registered that as good.

If I was given a punishment, I [would register]
that as bad." Swift has always tried to toe the line between
her public and private lives, but it hasn't always been smooth-sailing. Although she often appears smiley and happy,
she has also admitted to sometimes feeling, quote, "really, really low." As a young actress, Amanda Seyfried felt very
anxious but didn't know where to turn. After experiencing a panic attack, she was
able to get the help she needed at last — and she wanted it to be known far and wide. Seyfried told Net-A-Porter in 2018, "At first, my publicist said, 'Don't talk
about your anxiety. And I thought, f**k you, actually. I want kids who are having weird thoughts
to share them without stigma.

And if that affects my career, so be it." Seyfried also suffers from OCD, which manifests
in different ways, including a fear of forgetting to turn off the stove, or in the form of health
anxiety, as she told Allure in 2016. She takes the antidepressant Lexapro to help
her manage day-to-day life. She explained that she doesn't intend to stop
taking it because it helps her, and the only reason she would stop taking it would be because
of what she calls the "stigma" associated with it. She said, "A mental illness is a thing that people cast
in a different category [from other illnesses], but I don't think it is.

It should be taken as seriously as anything
else. You don't see the mental illness: It's not
a mass; it's not a cyst. But it's there. Why do you need to prove it? If you can treat it, you treat it." Several lyrics in Kendrick Lamar's song "u"
address a state of depression. He sings, "I know depression is restin' on your heart
for two reasons. And if I told your secrets the world'll know
money can't stop a suicidal weakness." In an interview with MTV in 2015, Lamar was
directly asked whether these lyrics were based on his own experience. He answered, "I've pulled that song not only from previous
experiences, but I think my whole life. I think everything is drawn out of that." "Nothing was as vulnerable as that record." Lamar explained that he really wanted to share
those experiences with his listeners because he wanted his music to have a "positive" influence
on them. One BBC News article seems to confirm that
he achieved his goal. In this piece, a young Londoner explained
how helpful it had been for him to see some of his favorite artists — including Kendrick
Lamar and Kid Cudi — be open about their mental health, thereby validating his own

He said, "There was a lot of backlash when [Kendrick
Lamar] spoke about depression because hip-hop is such an aggressive art. So for him to talk about that subject was
big and helped a lot of people […] my age." We hope Lamar has been able to directly witness
the incredible impact he's had. If you or anyone you know is having suicidal
thoughts, please call or chat online with the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at
1-800-273-TALK (8255). Or Text HOME to the Crisis Text Line 741741..

As found on YouTube

7 Reasons to Eat Chokeberry, A Superfood That Improves Your Heart Health

Have you ever heard about aronia? In today's video, you will learn the benefits
of this little fruit that resembles acai berry. Aronia berries, also called chokeberries,
are a superfood filled with beneficial antioxidants. According to studies, chokeberries have many
health benefits, such as improving heart health and reducing cancer risk. Native from North America, chokeberry is a
healthy berry filled with many nutrients, including powerful antioxidants. Aronia is known for its astringent flavor
and can be found in woodlands and swamps.

Aronia is usually found in three varieties
– red, purple, and black. They can be cultivated as foods or ornamental
plants. But, how do you eat chokeberries? They can be added to bread, cakes, and other
baked goods or as toppings for ice cream. Chokeberries are also used in the production
of wines, juices, syrups, and teas. Did you know that? Check out the benefits of this incredible
fruit: Improves cardiovascular health Aronia helps increase blood flow and strengthens
the blood vessels. Studies revealed that chokeberry helps prevent
heart attacks in many aspects. It helps reduce inflammation that can happen
in the arteries walls. Aronia also helps lower LDL cholesterol levels
which, if in big amounts, can build up in the arteries walls and cause blockages and
heart issues. Contributes to brain health Thanks to its antioxidants, chokeberry improves
memory. A small study suggests chokeberry can help
to treat neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and other dementias.

Enjoying the video? Then, give it a like and share it with your
friends! You can also contribute to the channel through
the Thanks button. Don't forget to subscribe to be notified of
any new videos! Healthy eyes Chokeberries are excellent for protecting
the eyes. They contain big amounts of carotene, which
avoids damage to the eye cells. And thanks to the antioxidants, these berries
protect your eyes against age-related diseases, macular degeneration, and cataracts. Improves Digestion Aronia is a great source of fiber, which contribute
to the health of our digestive system. Eating chokeberry helps regulate bowel movements
and prevents digestive disorders like constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. Chokeberry is also useful for treating stomach
issues like diarrhea and gastric ulcers. Improves colds Did you know that adding chokeberry to your
regular diet is a great way of protecting yourself against the common cold and flu? Besides having high levels of vitamin C, this
berry also has antiviral properties. Studies confirmed that aronia berries show
bacteriostatic activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and antiviral
effects against type A cold virus.

Aids in cases of Diabetes Aronia was also proven beneficial for diabetic
people. The active components of this berry help lower
blood sugar levels and also act in insulin production. According to a 2002 study, aronia can keep
blood sugar levels under control in diabetic people. Diabetic patients were asked to drink 7 ounces
of aronia juice, without any added sugar, every day for three months. The results showed a reduction in glucose
levels of the patients while fasting. Promotes urinary tract health Another great benefit that chokeberry offers
is heaving a healthy urinary tract. Urinary tract infection is a common condition
that affects millions of people in the world. It is characterized by pain during urination,
frequent urination, and bloody urine. Eating aronia stops bacteria from fixating
in the urinary tract lining. The bacteria are then carried by the urine,
avoiding infections.

So, did you like learning about the benefits
of chokeberry? You can find chokeberries in natural health
stores or online. You can use the berries raw or powder to make
jams, purées, and homemade syrups. Add them to smoothies or juices with other
fruits, like bananas, strawberries, and vegetables. If you find aronia, try it. Then, come here and share your experience
with us..

As found on YouTube

Student Problems Investigates : Student Mental Health (2/3)

that's our oh boy uh it's quite shocking [Music] suicide is a single largest killer men under 45 I've said it before every time you say it people still said to me now never know can't really take that of a single I was more than heart disease traffic accidents cancer single largest killer 76% of suicides in the UK are male and there will be 12 men today will die and 12 men tomorrow 12 min a day after that's one every two hours in the UK do we run helpline services at the point of crisis to directly prevent suicide and help people in practical ways and then we also campaign in society upstream if you lie to prevent people getting to that stage [Music] for two weeks 14 days I went out straight taking cocaine heroin after those 14 days all culminated in an attempt to save my own life [Music] although it happened over a long time it it seems like it all came into one the money off it came from when I was at a party a uni party and I was I said I'm really not a fit it said I want it to go on but what he was like are chilly like she not my knot it was pretty much started out by yourself I never really had a relationship me dad so I never taught to be dad about the feelings I never talked to him about girlfriends when I was growing up and we got we have we only really talked about football so I never thought I could talk to me dad's about how I was feeling and I didn't want to inconvenience my mum [Music] it was hard to talk about it because I thought I was sad if I was in a constant state of just been unhappy I didn't think of it as depression I didn't want to tell me friends because I didn't want to be a downer on the mood when we're out you start to feel like trapped inside your own head but as soon as you get the the words out and the feelings out and the emotions out people can help you through it what we find again and again and again I mean literally countless times anecdotally his people saying I was really really frightened to turn for help I viewed it as weak I viewed it as not being manly whatever whatever that might be we've never come across anybody who said and then I did and it got worse 100% of the time people will say I did and nothing bad happened actually it really helped [Music] [Music] [Music] hi I'm Liam I'm 20 years old student from Manchester I got a depression and I think we need to start talking about fresh and more [Music] [Music] [Music]

As found on YouTube

Does a mother’s mental health affect her fetus? (Part 2) — interview with Catherine Monk | VIEWPOINT

Katharine: Hey, everyone. This is part two of our discussion with Dr.
Catherine Monk. It picks up right where we left off in part
one. Welcome back. What should we think about this? I mean, if a child, a baby, a 2-year old,
a 4-year old, a 10-year old has a more or less active amygdala? Is that what…? Who cares? Dr. Monk: Wow, it's another great question. So, and an important one because, for two
reasons. In developmental research and we think about

The brain is in its development is plastic,
meaning that nothing is set in stone, nothing is permanent. There are gonna continue to be influences
that shape it throughout development. So we want, we really need to remember that
this is a brain getting shaped. And just because we're seeing these two early
indications of a certain trajectory, a path, a future for development, doesn't mean it's
set in stone and that we necessarily know what it means. What we're seeing is that this is a brain…

These seem to be brains getting shaped differently
based on mother's depression and anxiety during pregnancy. And there may actually, a theory goes, be
something from an evolutionary perspective might have been advantageous about this, and
that is that the mother would potentially with her anxiety for example, wanna communicate
to the fetus by mechanisms we're still trying to understand, possibly a stress hormone,
cortisol, crossing the placenta, influencing brain and behavior development in utero, to
say, "It's a dangerous world out there, be ready.

I'm anxious because it's dangerous out there,
so get prepared." So some of the thinking is that this brain
behavior differences you're noting, it's not necessarily that we think they're bad or good,
they may be accelerating development to be aware of the future out there sooner and be
prepared. And what people often think about now, and
it's so important in terms of raising children to think this way, is the match between that
developing organism and the baby's environment.

And that can be on a macro level. Meaning, are you anticipating those bears
in the woods we all learned about as children, learning about fear and how the brain works? Or, are you in a 21st century classroom? It can also be on a more micro level. How are you and your parents? Are you a very good match and how to make
you even a better match to continue shaping your brain behavior development? For example, a baby who is very reactive and
a parent who's extremely calm could find it annoying and not understand their baby, or
a baby and a mother who are both extremely reactive and anxious could make each other
more uncomfortable and less well-regulated as a unit. Katharine: So, I know that you have a clinical
practice, and you're also running a program that is working with pregnant women and then
the first couple of years after their babies are born. Can you say a little bit about that and how
you're seeing those dynamics play out in that work? Dr. Monk: Yes absolutely. I guess what I will say is more from years
of clinical experience, that it's so important to bear in mind this idea that I'm focusing
on women right now, on mothers and being a little biased in that, but that every woman
learns their baby and even if it's a second or third baby, because all babies are different.

And again, that in some ways there's already
happening in utero because the woman is shaping that baby. But they are a unit. And in clinical work, I try to support them
reading each other's cues to optimize how well they fit each other. In our clinical intervention, I…it's not,
I can't quite say it's a program yet because we have preliminary data and we're about to
start some new large work with a lot more women.

But we've developed an intervention that starts
in pregnancy, and then goes to the postpartum period and it's for women at risk for postpartum
depression. And, one of the biggest risk factors for postpartum
depression is being distressed in pregnancy. So, having anxiety and depression. So, we're really targeting it in pregnancy. It's called PREPP, which stands for Practical
Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting. And it's a very brief intervention, just five
sessions and we are…we have three foci, how to optimize baby regulation and feeling
competent as a parent, some mindfulness skills and then what we call psycho-education or
information. So starting with the latter, it's what to
expect from your baby. The mindfulness is the kind of mindfulness
we all try to…many of us at least try to practice nowadays to help ourselves find calmness
in a way to deal with challenges.

And then probably the biggest part of this
is engaging women where they're at, even in pregnancy before the baby is born which is
wanting the best for their baby and wanting to feel that they have all the tools that
can help their baby sleep as best as possible, and fuss and cry as little as possible while
still communicating. Part of why we've oriented PREPP this way
is to reduce stigma around getting behavioral health services. So it's very much focused on the baby and
you, and you the mother, and we are approaching the risk for postpartum depression as something
that happens to a mother and her baby because not only the research I've described to you
indicating that the fetus is being affected but there are decades of research showing
that postpartum depression dramatically affects children's development, particularly cognitive
and emotional attachment development.

So it affects both of them. So, our approach starting in pregnancy is
meeting women where they're thinking, which is often very much about their baby as well
as about themselves, and reducing stigma by orienting this intervention for both of them,
and away from mental health per se. And we've had very good results. So far we have zero attrition which is amazing
for behavioral health interventions. It's only two in pregnancy, I should say. We visit them at birth, there's a check-in
phone call, and then there's a six week session. So we've had zero attrition when we've run
this and we've cut the rates of serious postpartum depression in half. Kathariner: And are these, what kind of women
are these? Dr. Monk: That's a great question, too. We really do know what are risk factors for
postpartum depression, but they're probably not as well advertised as say, risk factors
for breast cancer and they should be. So, past depression is one of the biggest,
meaning in one's life, being depressed during pregnancy, low social support, poverty.

The rate of postpartum depression is about
double in a poverty sample, up to almost 40% where it's 10% to 15% in a non-depressed sample. Katharine: So, what are the primary risk factors
that you've identified? Dr. Monk: Well, I should say that this has
been known for a while. So it's not just me identifying risk factors
for postpartum depression. And just to emphasize that, we all in the
public probably know risk factors for certain cancers better than we talk about the risk
factors for postpartum depression, or frankly, any depression even though they are well-known. For postpartum depression in particular, depression
in a woman's life previously, depression during pregnancy is a huge risk factor for postpartum
depression. Low social support, ambivalence about having
the baby, problems in the partner relationship that has led to the pregnancy in the first

And some data indicating a difficult relationship
with one's mother. Those are some of the major, but I really
also wanna emphasize that while the rate for postpartum depression, I mean, it's really
pretty high, 10 to 15% of women, and you can compare that to say, gestational diabetes,
which is about 3 to 5% of women, this is way higher. But when you get to a poverty sample, it's
almost double.

So, the rates of postpartum depression in
a poverty sample can be as high as 40%. So it's very, very high. The data we've had from our preliminary study
of this was not a poverty sample per se. So, it was really across the board but we…all
of the women met criteria for being at risk for postpartum depression and we cut the rates
in half of their actually experiencing it. So, we're really optimistic about working
with another group of women. Katharine: Mm-hmm. So there was a study done just in the last
couple of years looking at the social and emotional readiness of kindergartners entering
the Baltimore public schools. They followed those kids through fourth grade. And they found that kids who were assessed
as not socially, emotionally ready in kindergarten, meaning, they had trouble sitting quietly,
they had trouble following directions, they had trouble getting along with other kids,
that those children were much, much more likely by fourth grade to be behind academically,
to have been suspended or expelled.

The other thing they found is that about 50%
of the kindergartners entering the Baltimore public schools, were not socially, emotionally
ready to be successful in kindergarten. So, probably the predominant policy response
to looking at that, a lot of those, a lot of the kids entering the Baltimore public
schools are disadvantaged kids. And what we're seeing is if they're not ready
for kindergarten, they're gonna have trouble as they're going through school. So, one of the predominant responses to that
is starting school earlier, or sending children to pre-K to help them get ready for kindergarten. What you're talking about makes it sound as
though there are things, there are places to be focusing much before pre-K.

And I'm
wondering what your thoughts are based on your research, based on your work with these
women, what your thoughts are on the children that are entering kindergarten, not socially,
emotionally ready. Are any of these pieces fitting together for
you? Dr. Monk: Absolutely. And I wouldn't want to in any way be saying
we shouldn't also be providing support and intervention later. But I would wanna, I do say that our data
and that coming out of other labs suggest that we can also be doing much more earlier. The data will hopefully someday let us know
that if…because I hope we do get to do this, if we do more earlier, and I'll tell you what
I mean by that, might we not need to do so much later? And so, what would that look like? It would, in my view, look like a big public
health campaign around the importance of maternal mental health. And, I acknowledge and I'm focusing on women
right now but it is after all women who become pregnant. And, so that we attend to their mental well-being,
their behavioral health as much as we do their physical well-being, at least we…for most
women they do get adequate prenatal care.

And that we would also in that first year
or two, you know, the first postnatal, year or two or three really be thinking about helping
women and their families, having support for raising this child. And much more awareness of what our data is
suggesting, and I assume we'll continue to have these kind of data coming out and it
will get refined, that what a woman experiences is what the fetus is experiencing, that there
is this phenomenal brain growth going on in utero. And so, there isn't it just obvious to think
that we need to be attending then to that baby's environment, the mother, while that
brain is developing in utero, and then the first couple of years of life around, you
know, support for the woman and the family so that they can be, you know, the all…I'm
sure you know this work, all the serve, and return, and the engagement, the cognitive
development, and emotional development that happens through relationships.

Katharine: So the interactions. So, you're talking about supporting, making
sure that women are, understand the importance and are kind of psychologically able to engage
with their very young babies. Are you seeing in your research that that's
something women have trouble with? Dr. Monk: Well, certainly, if you are in your
pregnancy and you're feeling very ambivalent about having the baby, or you've had a tragedy
in your life that's on top of a significant amount of stress, or you're depressed, and
this is, you know, another time in your life when you're having a significant depression.

You know, already, the bond with a baby starts
when you're pregnant. I actually had a patient say to me the other
day who is unfortunately at grave risk of losing a baby with a genetic defect. And she emphatically said to me, but you're
a mother when you become pregnant. And so, this, the experiences you have and
already the preparation for that certain return once the baby comes out, and of course, early
on it's it's even more basic than serve and return, is starting in your mind, and, of
course, in your heart when you're pregnant. So, if you're feeling very depressed and overwhelmed,
the sense you have of this baby coming is already overshadowed by that. So, we need to be providing women the support
they need and the understanding that their experiences are affecting their baby. And, you know, before the baby is born, and
how can we provide support for everyone and education? Katharine: Mm-hmm. So, thank you so much. This has been absolutely fascinating. And I look forward to following your research
as you continue to work in this area. Dr. Monk: Thank you so much for having me.

It's been really enjoyable. Katharine: Hey, everyone. That's the end of our discussion with Dr.
Catherine Monk. Thanks very much for watching. As always, let us know what other topics you'd
like AEI scholars to cover on ''Viewpoint.'' And to learn more about early childhood development,
check the links in the description below..

As found on YouTube

Part 1: Health Care Agent

Hello, my name is Chris Barbieri and I’m
one of the Chaplains at Floyd Medical Center. In this series of short videos, I will be
explaining the Georgia Advance Directive, which has FOUR parts. In this segment, I will explain PART ONE. PART ONE is called HEALTH CARE AGENT. Before you begin Part One, complete the top
of page one by writing your full name and date of birth. Part One part has five sections. The first section lets you name a surrogate
decision maker…or the person you want to make your medical decisions if you lose the
ability to make medical decisions yourself.. In Georgia, that decision maker is called
your HEALTH CARE AGENT. This person used to be called a Medical Power
of Attorney or a Power of Attorney for Healthcare and many people are more familiar with those
terms. However, in Georgia, the legal term is your
Health Care Agent. As long as you can speak for yourself, your
doctors will talk to you about decisions related to your care.

However, if you are unable to speak for yourself,
your Health Care Agent will be contacted to make decisions on your behalf. Before you find yourself in crisis, you should
talk with your Health Care Agent and share your medical wishes. You should choose someone you trust to honor
your wishes. Naming a Health Care Agent can be critically
important because without an Advance Directive, Georgia law states that the physicians must
talk to your legal next-of-kin to make medical decisions. This law also dictates a specific order in
determining who is the next-of-kin. This order starts with a legally married spouse. If there is no spouse, next are grown children
– equally. If you have no spouse and nine children, then
those nine children will be your equal co-decision-makers. If there are no grown children, parents are
the next tier. If there are no parents, then siblings are
the next-of-kin (again equally.) There are a few more steps to this ordering
if a next-of-kin has still not been identified. For many people, their next-of-kin is exactly
who they want as their Health Care Agent. However, there are many situations in which
someone does not want their next-of-kin making their medical decisions.

I have seen numerous examples of this. For example:
One gentleman did not want to place the emotional burden of difficult decisions on his wife
and named a close friend. People who are engaged, but not yet married,
often want to name their fiancé as their Health Care Agent. Similarly, people who are separated, but not
yet legally divorced, often want someone other than their spouse to make decisions. One gentleman with no spouse sadly reported
that he did not trust his grown children. He named a niece that he did trust to serve
as his Health Care Agent. Frequently someone with numerous children
will want to name one or two children to serve as Health Care Agent to simplify decision-making.

The first section of Part One boils down to
this: You know your family. You know your friends. You know your situation better than anyone
else. Naming a Health Care Agent in an Advance Directive
ensures the medical team is talking to the person YOU want them to talk to if you are
unable to make decisions.. To complete this section, write the name,
address, and phone number of the person you want to serve as your Health Care Agent. Note that it is very important to have a good
phone number for the person you are naming. The second section of Part One is optional
and allows you to name backup Health Care Agents. Again, please write down the name address
and phone number for each person you name. Sections 3 and 4 of Part One explain the powers
granted to a Health Care Agent and provide guidance for the Health Care Agent. The Health Care Agent is agreeing to act in
the best interest of the patient. As a reminder, the Health Care Agent is only
empowered to make medical decisions and has no powers associated with financial responsibility.

The guidance also states that the Health Care
Agent is supposed to use “substituted judgment.” This means the Health Care Agent will do what
he or she believes the patient would want. The Healthcare Agent should NOT superimpose
his or her own beliefs on the situation. Section 5 is optional and is the last section
of Part One. It specifies a few powers the Health Care
Agent has AFTER death. Unless this section is completed and specifies
otherwise, the Health Care Agent is empowered to make decisions about Organ Donation, Autopsy,
and donating the body to science. Section 5 allows you to withhold that authority
or to grant that authority to someone else. This section also allows someone to indicate
their preference for burial or cremation. Note, that this preference is not binding
and that individuals must make their own funeral plans.

However, putting one’s preference in writing
can prevent family conflict by making your wishes clear. In summary, Part One is where you name the
person you trust to make your medical decisions if you cannot speak for yourself. That person is called your Health Care Agent. Once you have named a Health Care Agent, be
sure you talk through various medical scenarios with this person and ensure your wishes are
known and understood. In the next segment, we’ll look at PART
TWO – Treatment Preferences..

As found on YouTube

Novant Health | Clocks (0:30)

VO: Time. When things go right or where we need to be
when we need to be but when someone is sick or hurt time gets away from us. At Novant Health we know that we need to operate
on your schedule. We take the time to give you the care and
attention you need and get you back to what matters most. Because your time is everything– and so is
she. Novant Health. Making healthcare remarkable..

As found on YouTube

Lesson 2 in The Health Choices Book: Personal experiences – The Informed Health Choices project

Hello! Eh! Kazuku! You stop making trouble, Kazuku! Julie! What? My finger! It is only a burn, John. But it is painful! Cow dung heals burns! Hey! My friend Sarah said the same thing! Kazuku must have heard her! Sarah said she once put cow dung on her burn and her burn healed! So she says cow dung heals burns Really? Look! There's some cow dung! Put some on Your finger, John! Oh. OK… Mama! Mama! My finger! Let me see, John. John! You have an infection in your finger. Julie! Yes, Mama? Take your Brother to the clinic. OK. Oh! Good afternoon, children. My name is Professor Compare. And I am Professor Fair! Nice to meet you, children! Good afternoon, Professors! I am Julie.

Good afternoon. I am John. Is everything ok, John and Julie? No! I put cow dung on this burn and now I have an infection. But my friend Sarah says she put cow dung on her burn and the burn healed! So she says cow dung heals burns! What Sarah said was wrong. Next time, use cold water. It will reduce the pain. Then wait and the burn will go away! John, your infection does not look serious. Keep your finger clean, and if it gets worse, come back to the clinic. Are you doctors? Oh yes! Children, Professor Compare and I are doctors and Health reseachers. Professor, was Sarah trying to mislead us? No, but what she said was wrong. It could be because she was misled by someone else. Or, it could be because she has not learned some important lessons! Ah! Professors, will you teach us? Yes, John.

Then we can teach our friends and family! Wonderful! First, you must learn what a "claim" is. A claim is something that someone says that can be right or wrong or wrong. Like what Sarah said? Exactly! Sarah's basis for her claim was bad! But she said she put cow dung on her burn and her burn healed! Yes, but that is a bad basis for her claim. It was only Sarah's personal experience! Oooh… Julie, what would have happened if Sarah had not put cow dung on her burn? Ha. I am not sure. Is it possible that her burn would have healed without the cow dung? Yes, I think so.

So, someone's personal experience using a treatment is…..a bad basis for a claim about the effects… Oooh… OK. We cannot be sure what would have happened if they had not used the treatment! If the basis for her claim is bad, then the claim is unreliable. Eh… There are other bad bases for claims about treatments. When you hear a claim, you must always ask: What is the basis for the claim? And, is it a good or bad basis? If you hear any other claims about treatments, write them down. OK! We will use them to teach you, next week! We will come to visit your school. That's wonderful! Thank you, Profesors! Bye!.

As found on YouTube