Hyperloop Explained | The B1M

billed as the fastest way to cross the surface of the earth Hyperloop represents the greatest leap in transport infrastructure for generations with passengers sitting in pots that travel its airline speed through pressurized tubes using electric propulsion and magnetic levitation the concept promises to slash geni times between major cities from several hours to a matter of minutes whilst it may feel like science fiction Hyperloop is now on the cusp of becoming a reality this is the story behind the concept that's about to revolutionize our world [Music] Hyperloop was first conceived in 2012 by Tesla and SpaceX founder Elon Musk in a white paper released the following year musk set out his vision for a futuristic super high-speed transportation system they would see passenger pods move through a partial vacuum in steel tubes addressing the two key factors that slow down conventional vehicles friction and air resistance exploring a potential route between Los Angeles and San Francisco must believe that his concept could slash the eight hour bus ride four-hour train journey and convoluted three-hour air travel experience between the two cities to just 30 minutes under Musk's first Hyperloop proposal he suggested that compression fans would move air around the passenger pods to minimize drag and create air bearings beneath them floating them off the surface of the tubes it should be noted that Musk's early Hyperloop concept is not a million miles away from isambard kingdom brunel atmospheric railway that ran between Exeter and Plymouth in the UK from 1847 to 1848 that system moved carriages with pressurized air the air was extracted from a pipe that ran between the rails by pumping stations situated roughly every three miles along the route creating a vacuum a piston contained within this pipe was connected to the Train which pulled it forward despite its initial success the leather flaps that made the vacuum pipes airtight soon began to fail causing air to leak from the system and Brunel railway was abandoned with an estimated price tag close to six billion US dollars Musk's first Hyperloop concepts never came to fruition but the impressive idea and potential to link cities in such a direct way sparked intense interest from inception mosque had always stated that the concept of Hyperloop would be open-source and he actively encouraged others to come together and develop the necessary technology independently from his involvement this led to the formation of several startups and student teams developing various aspects of Hyperloop technology with varying degrees of success now several fully fledged companies are making significant strides to bring Hyperloop systems into reality Piper leave transportation technologies or HTT are making aggressive advancements and recently constructed a full-scale test track in France but the clear leaders of the pack in the current standings are virgin Hyperloop one virgin Hyperloop one are on track to achieve their bold ambition of bringing a Hyperloop system into operation by 2021 originally formed in 2014 as Hyperloop 1 the company was rebranded following a significant investment from Sir Richard Branson in 2017 deviating slightly from Musk's original plan virgin Hyperloop ones technology combines two basic principles the first is magnetic levitation or maglev a technology already used in mana rails to lift the passenger pods and move them along their rails magnetic levitation uses two sets of magnets one to repel the Train from the track and lifted upwards and the other to move the floating train along the track at considerable speed with reduced friction the second principle is the use of a low pressure vacuum sealed environment for the passenger pods to travel through by removing most of the air from the tubes and having no contact with the ground the pods face little to no resistance as they move air pressures inside the tube are equivalent to flying two hundred thousand feet above sea level such an environment enables the pods to reach speeds of over 760 miles per hour using very little energy by virtue of being in a tube the system is protected from the weather and can operate in almost any climatic conditions virgin Hyperloop one's system is controlled by advanced software that ensures acceleration and deceleration occurred gradually going relatively unnoticed by those traveling inside having built a 500 meter track in the Nevada desert virgin Hyperloop one have carried out several tests focusing on individual aspects of the system and a complete full scale systems test in May 2017 the propulsion braking levitation and vacuum systems are all performing well and the team have achieved a top speed of over two hundred and forty miles per hour to date to inform their plans for developing a fully operational network that is affordable for all virgin Hyperloop one launched a global challenge to find the routes best placed to benefit from Hyperloop technology with over 2,600 entries the field was reduced to just 35 potential locations with each entry enjoying strong support from governments and urban plans with 10 winners across five countries virgin hyper live one are now working in partnership with each of the locations on how best to deliver the Hyperloop technologies in live networks in February 2018 the firm unveiled their first prototype passenger pods for the Dubai to Abu Dhabi route a network that would drastically slash the car travel time between the two cities from 2 hours to just 12 minutes the advantages of Hyperloop are considerable like train stations Hyperloop stations called portals are planned to be located within inner-city areas with easy links to existing transport infrastructure this gives Hyperloop systems a distinct advantage over air travel where airports tend to be located beyond city limits with fewer accessibility options additionally the system is being developed to function on a turn up and go principle without a lengthy check-in process and with accelerated advanced security checks another clear benefit is its speed if Hyperloop could significantly reduce the travel time between cities it could be possible to live in a completely different city or part of the country from where you work with a commute notice similar in length to the one you perhaps take today this opens up a wide range of housing and employment opportunities with people no longer having to live close to where they work it could also take pressure off our cities where infrastructure is often still catching up with development and warehouse prices have become unattainable for most with speeds rivaling aircraft and nine of the top ten busiest errors in the world being domestic pipe loop has the potential to completely revolutionize the way we live work and travel a Hyperloop system requires very little energy to propel pods through its tubes as the vacuum environment poses little resistance as such the systems could be powered by renewable technologies such as solar and wind offering a considerably cleaner alternative to air travel when you consider the prospects of people being propelled in tubes across the Earth's surface at near supersonic speeds there are a number of questions that instinctively jump to mind perhaps the first is the impact of a potential break or breach in one of the tubes possibly as the result of an earthquake or external impacts virgin high believe one explained that they have addressed this by constructing thick steel tubes that are extremely difficult to puncture or break additionally the tubes are engineered to withstand changes in pressure and air leaks while maintaining their structure integrity theoretically a sudden influx of air into one of the tubes would simply slow the pods down due to the increased air resistance the pods could then be directed to the next portal via an auxilary power boost there is also the ability to section off parts of the route and to repressurize sections where significant emergencies occur and all pods are expected to be fitted with emergency access externally Hyperloop systems will largely travel on elevated seismically designed pylons that are able to move and flex independently of one another minimizing damage in the event of a major ground shift sensors along the route would instantly report issues to the systems control center in answering the natural safety concerns raised virgin Hyperloop one also point out that millions of people already travel at high speeds in metal tubes every time they take a flight and that numerous concerns surrounded the use of jet aircraft when that mode of transportation first came to prevalence while the idea of Hyperloop may seem far-fetched when you consider the industrial progress made in the past 200 years the current rate of technology adoption in our societies and the significant advances being made by hope elite companies around the world this incredible new transportation system looks sets become part of our everyday lives in the very near future if you enjoyed this video and would like to get more from the definitive video channel for construction subscribe to the b1m

Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything Forever – CRISPR

Imagine living in the 1980s, and they told you that Computers will dominate everything From shopping, to dating, to the stock market. Millions of people will connect through a network That you will have a handheld device Its power will outweigh the power of supercomputers At the time it seemed absolutely unreasonable, and then it all happened Science fiction has become our reality and we are not aware of it Today, we stand the same position for genetic engineering So, talk about it Where it came from and what to do now What are the current scientific breakthroughs that will change the way we live And what we consider “natural” forever Humans have been "engineering" organisms for thousands of years by artificial selection We have strengthened useful varieties of animals and plants We became very good at this, although we did not understand it well So we discovered the code of life: DNA, DNA Complex complex driving growth and job development Every living thing is multiplying The information is encoded in the order of the boat 4 nucleotides are bound together and create the code that bears the instructions Edit the arrangement and the carrier object will be modified Since he discovered DNA, people have been trying to manipulate it In the 1960s scientists exposed plants to radiation To cause a random mutation in the gene The idea was to have a unique plant by pure chance Sometimes, it succeeds In the 1970s, scientists added DNA to bacteria, plants and animals To study and modify them for scientific research, pharmaceutical, agriculture and enjoyment The first genetically modified animal was born in 1974 Making mice the main tools of research that saved millions of lives In the 1980s the subject became commercial The first patent was given to a microbe (germ) rate to absorb oil Today we produce many chemicals through modified organisms such as Life-saving coagulation factors, growth hormone and insulin are things we had to draw From animal organs.

Or genetically modified food in the lab arrived at the market in The first genetically modified food that arrived on the market in 1994 Tomatoes preserved taste; tomatoes with longer shelf life An enzyme was added to inhibit mold enzymes But GM foods and the debate around them deserve a video on their own In 1990 there was a simple start to genetic modification in humans To treat infertility, children were made They carry a genetic material of 3 human Which made them the first humans with 3 genetic parents These days we have muscle piercing pigs, a fast growing salmon Chicken with no feathers and transparent frogs For entertainment, we made things shine in the dark The shiny striped fish is sold for about $ 10 All of this is great, but for a while Gene modification was expensive, complex and time-consuming This changed with a new technology that began to enter the domain known as CRISPR Overnight cost of genetic modification decreased by 99% Instead of years, you need a few weeks to do an experiment Anyone in the lab can do it It is hard to describe the bone of CRISPR technology It has the power to change humanity forever How this sudden revolution took place and what it did Since the dawn of history, bacteria and viruses have been fighting So-called bacterial eaters or fish eaters In the oceans, they eat 40% of bacteria every day This happens by inserting their genetic code into the bacteria They control them (bacteria) and use them as a plant Bacteria try to resist but fail most of the time For the weakness of its defense tools But sometimes bacteria survived the attack In this case they do their most powerful antivirus system It saves part of the genetic DNA of the virus Evacuate her genetic acid and deposit it in an archive called CRISPR Saves there safely until needed When viruses attack again, bacteria quickly make an RNA copy Of the acid virus that saved and handed over to a secret weapon; a protein called CAS 9 This protein scans the bacteria for any evidence of a viral invasion By comparing each part of the genetic acid you find it to the archive sample When you find a 100% match The weapon does and cuts the viral genetic acid which makes it useless It protects bacteria from attack What is special is that Cass 9 is very accurate, like a DNA surgeon The revolution began when scientists discovered that the crisp system was programmable! You can give a copy of the genetic acid to be modified Then place the system in a live cell We compare old ways of genetic modification to maps, This technology acts as a GPS In addition to being accurate, cheap and easy, CRISPR offers the possibility of modifying living cells to activate and inhibit genes And target and study specific parts of DNA It works on all types of cells: microorganisms, plants, animals and humans Regardless of being revolutionary tools in the hands of scientists, It is the first generation There are more precise tools to evolve and use as we speak In 2015 scientists used CRISPR to drive HIV out of living cells For patients under test, which proved successful About a year later they did a wider experiment on mice That she had HIV in all of her cells By injecting CRISPR into its tail They could remove more than 50% of the viruses from the cells of the body In the next few decades, we have been able to cure HIV and other viral diseases Viruses hiding in human DNA such as herpes will be eliminated CRISPR may be able to eliminate one of our worst enemies, cancer Cancer occurs when cells refuse to die and continue to multiply While immunizing itself from the immune system CRISPR allows us to modify immune cells To become the most skilled in catching cancer cells Cancer treatment may become a Take a few needles from your cells Which has been modified in the lab for your recovery The first clinical trial of cancer treatment was approved by CRISPR In 2016 in the United States and in less than a month Chinese scientists announced They will treat lung cancer With CRISPR-modified immune cells in August 2016, events are accelerating There are also genetic diseases there are thousands of them and vary From mild annoying diseases to fatal or suffering decades With a powerful tool like CRISPR we can end this suffering of more than 3,000 genetic diseases It might happen because of a character error within the DNA We build modified versions of Cas 9 that can Modify one character leading to cure the disease from within the cell In a decade or two we may end thousands of diseases forever But all these medical applications share one thing: They are confined to the individual and die with him only if you use them on genital cells or At a very, very early stage of the embryo.

But we can use CRISPR for more: Make two modified humans, the design of the children and this will mean gradually But definitively a change in the genetic pool of humanity Genome modification method Human embryo is present, although technology is still in its infancy But it was tried twice; in 2016 and 2015, Chinese scientists Experiments on human embryos and had partial success in their second experiment This shows the great challenge ahead of us in terms of gene modification For embryos and scientists are working to solve it Just as the computer was in the 1970s, there will be better computers Regardless of your personal perspective of genetic engineering, it will affect you Modified humans may change the entire human genome The modified features will be passed on to the children who will transmit and publish them For generations that are followed by slowly changing human gene pool, it will start slowly The first genetically modified children will not be much modified, often They will be adjusted to prevent deadly genetic diseases that flow in the family's genes As technology develops and becomes more professional, many people will discuss it If not using genetic modification is ethical because you are depriving children To avoid suffering and death and deprive them of treatment but soon while Born on the first genetically modified child will open a door that will never close Initially the original qualities will be left alone, but after it becomes Genetic modification is more receptive and our knowledge of our genes is more extensive Passion will increase If you make your sperm resistant to Alzheimer's, why not give it too Also better Or, ideally, what about a tall length and muscle mass? Perfect hair? What about a kid with supernatural talent? Great changes It happens because of individual decisions, affecting millions of individuals And accumulate, and steadily increase, modified humans may become The dominant pattern.

As genetic engineering advances and our knowledge expands We will be able to solve the underlying cause of death: aging Two-thirds of the 150,000 people who will die today will die of aging At present, we believe that aging is caused by the accumulation of devastation in ourselves, such as DNA breakage The device responsible for repairing these fractures has been disrupted over time But there are also genes that directly affect aging Gene therapy with a few other treatments may stop or slow aging and may even reflect it! We know from nature that there are animals that are anti-aging perhaps we can To borrow a few genes for ourselves. Some scientists believe that aging Nothing will remain. We will inevitably die, but instead of dying at the age of 90 We may be able to spend a few thousand years with our loved ones Research in this area is still in its infancy and a group of scientists are still truly skeptical About the end of aging the challenges are enormous, and perhaps unattainable But we can imagine that people alive today will be the first beneficiaries of Anti Aging Treatment All we need is a capable person To convince a smart millionaire to make her his next big problem to solve (in reference to Elon Musk) More broadly, we can certainly solve many problems with a modified population Modified humans can be better equipped to handle high-energy foods, which means getting rid of a group Contemporary diseases such as obesity, for example We have a modified immune system with a library of potential threats We may gain immunity against most diseases that threaten us today So in the future we can equip humans They are prepared for long space flights, and they can withstand the different conditions of other planets Which would be useful in keeping us alive in this cruel universe However, we still have some challenges.

Some are technological and others are moral Some of you will feel upset and afraid to create a world Incomplete humans will reject and pre-select humans based on their characteristics and competencies Based on our perception of what is healthy The problem is that we actually live in this world. Tests for dozens of genes Disadvantages and problems have become essential for any pregnant woman In most of the world Even a slight suspicion of a genetic defect will result in termination of pregnancy Take Down syndrome for example, one of the most common genetic disorders In Europe, about 90% of cases are detected in pregnant women The pregnancy aborted, the decision to abortion is a personal decision par excellence but It is important to know that we are actually selecting human beings Based on their health. No need to claim that this Will change, so we have to be careful and respectful as we move forward Technology and we can make more choices. But none of this will happen soon Despite the power of Crisp, we have not been able to do it yet. Wrong modifications They still occur in addition to unknown errors that can occur anywhere in the DNA Without attention, a gene may give us the desired result But it may also have the wrong effect We still do not know yet about the complex overlap of our genes until we survive The consequences are undesirable, working on accurate and controlled methods It is their great when human experiments begin, since we discussed A brilliant future is possible, there is also a dark vision Imagine what a country like North Korea could do if it could engineer Genetic, can the system consolidate its power forever by making a few genetic modifications On his staff? What will prevent an authoritarian system from engineering An army with genetically modified supernatural soldiers? Theoretically this is possible! A scenario like this It is inundated in the future if it ever happens.

But Evidence of this principle exists Currently. This technology is actually powerful. This may be Reason to ban genetic modification and any research close to it that would be A big mistake is certain The prohibition of genetic engineering on humans will prompt scientists to look for other ways Only for places where there are uncomfortable laws and regulations By sharing we can be cautious There are justifications, monitoring and transparency Do you feel bad now? Most of us have Something is not so good for them. Will we have to survive In the future ahead? The technology must be a bit scary, but we have a lot of gains and engineering Genetic may be a step in the way of natural evolution of the genus In this intelligent universe, we may be able to eliminate diseases, we may be able to prolong our life For centuries and travel through the stars. There is no need for limited thinking When we speak on the subject Whatever you think about genetic engineering.

The future is coming whatever you did. What was a mad science fiction became Our new reality, a reality full of opportunities and challenges Such a video would not have been possible without your support on the Patreon.com supporter If you want to support explaining complex things, maybe get On your bird, you can do it here. Want to know more about CRISPR? We have developed Sources and references in the video description The whole placement will come later if you want to receive a timely notification You can follow us here Translated by the Amara.org team