Imagine living in the 1980s, and they told you that Computers will dominate everything From shopping, to dating, to the stock market. Millions of people will connect through a network That you will have a handheld device Its power will outweigh the power of supercomputers At the time it seemed absolutely unreasonable, and then it all happened Science fiction has become our reality and we are not aware of it Today, we stand the same position for genetic engineering So, talk about it Where it came from and what to do now What are the current scientific breakthroughs that will change the way we live And what we consider “natural” forever Humans have been "engineering" organisms for thousands of years by artificial selection We have strengthened useful varieties of animals and plants We became very good at this, although we did not understand it well So we discovered the code of life: DNA, DNA Complex complex driving growth and job development Every living thing is multiplying The information is encoded in the order of the boat 4 nucleotides are bound together and create the code that bears the instructions Edit the arrangement and the carrier object will be modified Since he discovered DNA, people have been trying to manipulate it In the 1960s scientists exposed plants to radiation To cause a random mutation in the gene The idea was to have a unique plant by pure chance Sometimes, it succeeds In the 1970s, scientists added DNA to bacteria, plants and animals To study and modify them for scientific research, pharmaceutical, agriculture and enjoyment The first genetically modified animal was born in 1974 Making mice the main tools of research that saved millions of lives In the 1980s the subject became commercial The first patent was given to a microbe (germ) rate to absorb oil Today we produce many chemicals through modified organisms such as Life-saving coagulation factors, growth hormone and insulin are things we had to draw From animal organs.
Or genetically modified food in the lab arrived at the market in The first genetically modified food that arrived on the market in 1994 Tomatoes preserved taste; tomatoes with longer shelf life An enzyme was added to inhibit mold enzymes But GM foods and the debate around them deserve a video on their own In 1990 there was a simple start to genetic modification in humans To treat infertility, children were made They carry a genetic material of 3 human Which made them the first humans with 3 genetic parents These days we have muscle piercing pigs, a fast growing salmon Chicken with no feathers and transparent frogs For entertainment, we made things shine in the dark The shiny striped fish is sold for about $ 10 All of this is great, but for a while Gene modification was expensive, complex and time-consuming This changed with a new technology that began to enter the domain known as CRISPR Overnight cost of genetic modification decreased by 99% Instead of years, you need a few weeks to do an experiment Anyone in the lab can do it It is hard to describe the bone of CRISPR technology It has the power to change humanity forever How this sudden revolution took place and what it did Since the dawn of history, bacteria and viruses have been fighting So-called bacterial eaters or fish eaters In the oceans, they eat 40% of bacteria every day This happens by inserting their genetic code into the bacteria They control them (bacteria) and use them as a plant Bacteria try to resist but fail most of the time For the weakness of its defense tools But sometimes bacteria survived the attack In this case they do their most powerful antivirus system It saves part of the genetic DNA of the virus Evacuate her genetic acid and deposit it in an archive called CRISPR Saves there safely until needed When viruses attack again, bacteria quickly make an RNA copy Of the acid virus that saved and handed over to a secret weapon; a protein called CAS 9 This protein scans the bacteria for any evidence of a viral invasion By comparing each part of the genetic acid you find it to the archive sample When you find a 100% match The weapon does and cuts the viral genetic acid which makes it useless It protects bacteria from attack What is special is that Cass 9 is very accurate, like a DNA surgeon The revolution began when scientists discovered that the crisp system was programmable! You can give a copy of the genetic acid to be modified Then place the system in a live cell We compare old ways of genetic modification to maps, This technology acts as a GPS In addition to being accurate, cheap and easy, CRISPR offers the possibility of modifying living cells to activate and inhibit genes And target and study specific parts of DNA It works on all types of cells: microorganisms, plants, animals and humans Regardless of being revolutionary tools in the hands of scientists, It is the first generation There are more precise tools to evolve and use as we speak In 2015 scientists used CRISPR to drive HIV out of living cells For patients under test, which proved successful About a year later they did a wider experiment on mice That she had HIV in all of her cells By injecting CRISPR into its tail They could remove more than 50% of the viruses from the cells of the body In the next few decades, we have been able to cure HIV and other viral diseases Viruses hiding in human DNA such as herpes will be eliminated CRISPR may be able to eliminate one of our worst enemies, cancer Cancer occurs when cells refuse to die and continue to multiply While immunizing itself from the immune system CRISPR allows us to modify immune cells To become the most skilled in catching cancer cells Cancer treatment may become a Take a few needles from your cells Which has been modified in the lab for your recovery The first clinical trial of cancer treatment was approved by CRISPR In 2016 in the United States and in less than a month Chinese scientists announced They will treat lung cancer With CRISPR-modified immune cells in August 2016, events are accelerating There are also genetic diseases there are thousands of them and vary From mild annoying diseases to fatal or suffering decades With a powerful tool like CRISPR we can end this suffering of more than 3,000 genetic diseases It might happen because of a character error within the DNA We build modified versions of Cas 9 that can Modify one character leading to cure the disease from within the cell In a decade or two we may end thousands of diseases forever But all these medical applications share one thing: They are confined to the individual and die with him only if you use them on genital cells or At a very, very early stage of the embryo.
But we can use CRISPR for more: Make two modified humans, the design of the children and this will mean gradually But definitively a change in the genetic pool of humanity Genome modification method Human embryo is present, although technology is still in its infancy But it was tried twice; in 2016 and 2015, Chinese scientists Experiments on human embryos and had partial success in their second experiment This shows the great challenge ahead of us in terms of gene modification For embryos and scientists are working to solve it Just as the computer was in the 1970s, there will be better computers Regardless of your personal perspective of genetic engineering, it will affect you Modified humans may change the entire human genome The modified features will be passed on to the children who will transmit and publish them For generations that are followed by slowly changing human gene pool, it will start slowly The first genetically modified children will not be much modified, often They will be adjusted to prevent deadly genetic diseases that flow in the family's genes As technology develops and becomes more professional, many people will discuss it If not using genetic modification is ethical because you are depriving children To avoid suffering and death and deprive them of treatment but soon while Born on the first genetically modified child will open a door that will never close Initially the original qualities will be left alone, but after it becomes Genetic modification is more receptive and our knowledge of our genes is more extensive Passion will increase If you make your sperm resistant to Alzheimer's, why not give it too Also better Or, ideally, what about a tall length and muscle mass? Perfect hair? What about a kid with supernatural talent? Great changes It happens because of individual decisions, affecting millions of individuals And accumulate, and steadily increase, modified humans may become The dominant pattern.
As genetic engineering advances and our knowledge expands We will be able to solve the underlying cause of death: aging Two-thirds of the 150,000 people who will die today will die of aging At present, we believe that aging is caused by the accumulation of devastation in ourselves, such as DNA breakage The device responsible for repairing these fractures has been disrupted over time But there are also genes that directly affect aging Gene therapy with a few other treatments may stop or slow aging and may even reflect it! We know from nature that there are animals that are anti-aging perhaps we can To borrow a few genes for ourselves. Some scientists believe that aging Nothing will remain. We will inevitably die, but instead of dying at the age of 90 We may be able to spend a few thousand years with our loved ones Research in this area is still in its infancy and a group of scientists are still truly skeptical About the end of aging the challenges are enormous, and perhaps unattainable But we can imagine that people alive today will be the first beneficiaries of Anti Aging Treatment All we need is a capable person To convince a smart millionaire to make her his next big problem to solve (in reference to Elon Musk) More broadly, we can certainly solve many problems with a modified population Modified humans can be better equipped to handle high-energy foods, which means getting rid of a group Contemporary diseases such as obesity, for example We have a modified immune system with a library of potential threats We may gain immunity against most diseases that threaten us today So in the future we can equip humans They are prepared for long space flights, and they can withstand the different conditions of other planets Which would be useful in keeping us alive in this cruel universe However, we still have some challenges.
Some are technological and others are moral Some of you will feel upset and afraid to create a world Incomplete humans will reject and pre-select humans based on their characteristics and competencies Based on our perception of what is healthy The problem is that we actually live in this world. Tests for dozens of genes Disadvantages and problems have become essential for any pregnant woman In most of the world Even a slight suspicion of a genetic defect will result in termination of pregnancy Take Down syndrome for example, one of the most common genetic disorders In Europe, about 90% of cases are detected in pregnant women The pregnancy aborted, the decision to abortion is a personal decision par excellence but It is important to know that we are actually selecting human beings Based on their health. No need to claim that this Will change, so we have to be careful and respectful as we move forward Technology and we can make more choices. But none of this will happen soon Despite the power of Crisp, we have not been able to do it yet. Wrong modifications They still occur in addition to unknown errors that can occur anywhere in the DNA Without attention, a gene may give us the desired result But it may also have the wrong effect We still do not know yet about the complex overlap of our genes until we survive The consequences are undesirable, working on accurate and controlled methods It is their great when human experiments begin, since we discussed A brilliant future is possible, there is also a dark vision Imagine what a country like North Korea could do if it could engineer Genetic, can the system consolidate its power forever by making a few genetic modifications On his staff? What will prevent an authoritarian system from engineering An army with genetically modified supernatural soldiers? Theoretically this is possible! A scenario like this It is inundated in the future if it ever happens.
But Evidence of this principle exists Currently. This technology is actually powerful. This may be Reason to ban genetic modification and any research close to it that would be A big mistake is certain The prohibition of genetic engineering on humans will prompt scientists to look for other ways Only for places where there are uncomfortable laws and regulations By sharing we can be cautious There are justifications, monitoring and transparency Do you feel bad now? Most of us have Something is not so good for them. Will we have to survive In the future ahead? The technology must be a bit scary, but we have a lot of gains and engineering Genetic may be a step in the way of natural evolution of the genus In this intelligent universe, we may be able to eliminate diseases, we may be able to prolong our life For centuries and travel through the stars. There is no need for limited thinking When we speak on the subject Whatever you think about genetic engineering.
The future is coming whatever you did. What was a mad science fiction became Our new reality, a reality full of opportunities and challenges Such a video would not have been possible without your support on the Patreon.com supporter If you want to support explaining complex things, maybe get On your bird, you can do it here. Want to know more about CRISPR? We have developed Sources and references in the video description The whole placement will come later if you want to receive a timely notification You can follow us here Translated by the Amara.org team